Searle's Theory Of Speech Act Theory

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Speech act theory could be traced back to Austin’s (1962) introduction of the three characteristics of speech utterances: locutions, illocutions, and perlocutions, and Searle’s (1969) classifications of speech acts into representatives, directives, expressives, commisives, and declarations according to their communicative functions. Another approach for the classification of speech acts is Searle’s (1979) distinction between direct and indirect speech acts according to the relationship between the structural forms and communicative functions. A directspeech act refers to utterances whose meaning can be understood through linguistic forms, while indirect strategies are used to show an appropriate level of politeness. 1.2 Politeness The history of politeness theory can be traced back to Grice’s theory of Cooperative Principles (Grice, 1975). In his theory, the maxims of quality, quantity, relation and manner were identified. In 1975, Brown and Levinson further developed the notion of face and proposed positive politeness and negative politeness. At last, Leech (1983) added a politeness principle with six sub-maxims, namely sympathy, agreement, modesty, approbation, generosity and tact maxim, and clarified a new idea about politeness. Among all of the perspectives, one of the most influential and important approaches in the field of linguistic politeness is the notion of face, proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987). Their framework was the first to connect the notion of face

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