The critiques are that there is still little evidence of productiveness and it does not explicitly address social change as it is firmly rooted in medical discourse. The social Action model emphasise prevention and promotes positive mental health. It helps people in communities to recognize potential and change structures as well as enhances community support and morale. Critiques are that it underplays the individual subjective experience and personal agency. Both models share the view that communities be protected from additional mental illness.
While overly flexible boundaries between the therapist and the client seems to be undesired, a therapeutic relationship should not be rigid as well. Guidelines are developed to create boundaries between the therapist and the client (Lazarus, 1994). However, when the guidelines are followed too strictly by the therapist, it creates rigid boundaries between the therapist and client. It can result in poor and rigid therapeutic relationship, which lacks authenticity and sensitivity (Davidson, 2005). The rigid therapeutic relationship leads to an inaccurate assessment and poor working alliance (Eaton et al., 1993, as cited by Ackerman & Hilsenroth, 2001; Iwakabe, Rogan, & Stalikas, 2000).
In healthcare they may arise from a situation in which a healthcare worker is involved in a complex situation that involves a mental conflict between moral imperatives, in which more than one right or wrong option is presented to the professional, but to act on one will compromise the other. For example, in some cultures it is wrong and frowned upon to tell someone they are dying, and you as a healthcare worker are unsure how to deal with this. You wrestle with the hard decision whether to tell the patient the truth or conceal the patient diagnosis. Not to tell the patient may compromise the patient best interest in his or her care and telling the patient might violate the patient culture
2) What ethical concerns about the treatment of Harry might have been troubling to the IRB of the hospital in which he was being treated? The ethical concerns about the treatment of Harry was troubling to the IRB of the hospital in which he was being treated at was the way Dr. Foxx ran his treatment with harry. Dr. Foxx’s treatment consisted of negative consequences. In his modification treatment he used three levels. Level one was a time out where if harry started to self-abuse he was not allowed to have his restraints and they would leave the room, Level two Dr. Foxx and his colleagues would physically restrain Harrys Body, and if Level one or Two did not work they would move to Level three electric shock, and shock his arms for self-abusing” consequences are events that maintain a behavior in some way, either by increasing or decreasing it ( Corey pg 238)”.
Stigmatization of mental illness existed well before psychiatry became a formal discipline, but was not formally labeled and defined as a societal problem until the publication of Goffman’s book (1963). Mental illnesses are among the most stigmatizing conditions, regardless of the specific psychiatric diagnosis. Unlike other illnesses, mental illness is still considered by some to be a sign of weakness, as well as a source of shame and disgrace. Many psychiatric patients are concerned about how people will view them if knowledge of their condition becomes public Mental health stigma can be divided into two distinct types: • social stigma is characterized by prejudicial attitudes and discriminating behavior directed towards individuals with mental health problems as a result of the psychiatric label they have been given and has those types stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination Stereotypes are based on knowledge available to members of a group and provide a way to categorize information about other groups in society Prejudiced persons agree with these negative stereotypes, and these attitudes lead to discrimination through negative behaviors toward mentally ill individuals those negative perceptions create fear of and social distance from mentally ill persons. • perceived stigma or
They can also be seen in a negative way by residents’ family members especially if there is no proper explanation as to why the restraint is being used and how it can benefit the resident. There is a strong emotional response by family members when they see restraints being used on love ones. This can damage the family-nurse relationship. The main issue with using restraints even if it does benefit the resident is it can cause aggravation. The negative side of using restraints within residential care homes is that the use of restraints can increase the risk of injuries instead of preventing them.
Disadvantages Even though the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of informed consent, it is still vital to talk about the shortcomings involved. It is important for health care professionals to understand the disadvantages of informed consent just as much as the advantages so that they can prevent these drawbacks, if possible. The disadvantages I will be discussing in this section is the act of coercion and undue influence, emergency situations and special circumstances where informed consent does not apply, and therapeutic privilege. When informing patients about their care options, the health care provider may be convinced that one way is the best and may inadvertently pressure a patient to make a different decision than they originally
That’s why I feel that legal actions should not be taken at the moment. Fidelity is a core principle in nursing or any other healthcare institution. It involves balancing of so many activities to ensure that the patients are treated in the right way. It takes promising a patient that you would see him or her and in your tight schedule you create time to see the patient. Balancing the so many activities is not easy according to Macciocchi (2009).
Yet, the social worker would be ask to breach confidentiality agreements when one is pursuing involuntary psychiatric hospitalization of a troubled client; or social contact with a former client (Company, 2016). Nonetheless, other ethical challenges relates to agency administration, community work, social policy, and research. For instance, administrators’ decisions about the distribution of scarce or limited agency resources, conflicts of interest among staff, and the use of ethically questionable marketing strategies to solicit clients. Still other ethical dilemmas involve relationships among professional colleagues. For examples social worker’s response to a colleague who has behaved unethically or who is impaired or incompetent or what’s Frederic G. Reamer refers to as the ethics of “whistle-blowing” (Company, 2016).
Grünbaum stated that the theory was “fundamentally flawed, even if the validity of his clinical evidence were not in question" but that "the clinical data are themselves suspect; more often than not, they may be the patient's responses to the suggestions and expectations of the analyst". There was a general consensus among critics that Freud’s theory was lacking empirical data, the demographical sample used to determine the efficacy of the theory was limited.10 Some more practical limitations of psychoanalysis would include the extensive time needed for each patient, the fact that it doesn’t work for all patients and sometimes can even surface repressed memories that will exacerbate the patient’s illness. Ultimately, it comes down to the question of whether medical professionals should treat the symptoms of the mental illness or the cause. A combination of psychoanalysis, medication and cognitive – behavioural therapies should be used and embrace the limitations and advantages of each theory/treatment and used