It turned a micrometer like the Apple 11 into a familiar spreadsheet that would total numbers in rows and column. It made people realize that anybody could use a computer. That is, VisiCalc was more than a program which many other soon copied. Even today the best software emulates some familiar model. At about the same time, word processing software on microcomputers became popular as alternatives to expensive system designed solely for word processing.
• They are much less expensive than the mainframes. • Their invention was possible because of the invention of core memory technologies and transistors. • Minicomputers can give parallel access to up to 100 users. Hence they were used in places such as business organizations for maintaining billings and finances. • Some of the very first companies to manufacture the minicomputer systems were Hewlett Packard, DEC and Data General.
Computers for the first time became open to a mass gathering of people since they were little and less expensive than their predecessors. The development of the IC was the best accomplishment done in the time of the third era of computers. A high level of language was developed and a magnetic core and solid states were used as primary storage. These computers were capable of reducing computational time and maintenance cost was fairly low. Due to these capabilities, the input and output of these computers became more sophisticated.
Macintosh was being the first desktop computer to market with an intuitive Graphical user interface and memory 512KB expandable to 2MB. It was successful that the company ran out of the parts necessary to build it. Macintosh Color Classic – 1990-1993 This was a first color compact Macintosh personal computer. Apple Macintosh Classic features an 8 MHz 68000 processor, 1 MB of 2 MB of RAM and either a 1.44 MB disk drive or a 1.44 MB disk drive and a 40 MB hard drive in a sleek, compact all-in-one case with a 9" monochrome display. Macintosh classic came with reasonable price $999.
Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) pronounced as “risk” is a type of microprocessor architecture that uses relatively very less or limited number of instructions. Until mid-1980s computer manufacturers used to build computers with relatively complex Central Processing Units (CPU) and large number of instructions. At that time computer manufacturers came together to reverse the trend of using large and complex instructions by using limited set of instructions in computer architecture. “One advantage of reduced instruction set computers is that they can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple. Another, perhaps more important advantage, is that RISC chips require
During the last two decades there has been an increase in co-operation and resource-sharing on the part libraries by developing computer based systems. It has two advantages: Access to more documents and information sources due to coordination and cooperation of many libraries in a system. Less expenditure, because the total cost is shared by a number of libraries in the system. The computer based library system, such as online computer-base library centre (OCLC) in the United States, the university of Toronto library automated system (UTLAS) in Canada and the Birmingham libraries cooperative Mechanization project (BLCMP) in the UK are functioning successfully with increasing databases and multidimensional services. Today only computerized library can take part in computer networking and Information networks at national and international levels, it is the only way in which efficient standardized and faster service is assured, besides
Today Virtual Reality has a large impact in the consistently evolving lives of the world 's population. Countries all over the world are in different stages of innovation of technology. There are, for example, countries at a level where final developments of technology occur such as advanced robotics. But other countries only recently implemented escalators in their public malls and shopping centres now (simbabwe). Virtual Reality has beginnings that went before the time that the idea was instituted and formalized.
Online Learning: Virtually Valuable or Digitally Deplorable? As said by Peter Singer, “The Internet, like the steam engine, is a technological breakthrough that changed the world.” With this breakthrough eventually came the evolution of distance learning for students everywhere. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, organizations and companies started to test the efficacy of online coursework, as well as CBT, or computer-based training. Although new and exciting, these early e-classes were expensive to produce and manage (Lee). However, the popularity of personal computers began to blossom by the 1990s, and new online software like video teleconferencing, video lectures, interactive lessons, animated demonstrations, slideshow presentations, email, and online chat groups enabled students and teachers to have stronger virtual communication, and online learning grew to become more commonplace (Lee).
The essence of the digital revolution is computers, such as the one on your desk, on your lap, or even in your pocket, which allow information to be stored digitally on microchips. The digital revolution has replaced many other forms of storage and filing systems; gone, for example, are the rolodexes from libraries, or the numerous filing cabinets, which used to populate every office or home. Instead, hundreds, if not thousands, of documents can now be stored on a microchip smaller than a
In order to put the rise of GSM in context, it is important to note that the climate of economic liberalization and opening up of new markets in Asia, Latin American and Eastern Europe helped boost analog system subscriber numbers throughout the 1990’s. The roll-out of a multinational global communications standard faced several formidable barriers. 3.4 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLY (LCD): An LCD is a small low cost display. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller. This controller is standard across many displays (HD 44780) which means many micro-controllers have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code.