Finally, the metacognitive learning strategies solely connect to the students and their own cognitive processes. The learning processes relate to planning, monitoring, and evaluating. For example, students plan, organize, and pay attention selectively to manage their
First Language Acquisition versus Second Language Learning: Applied linguistics is the attempt to put the insights resulting from lingusic reseach to practical uses. These include first and second language teaching (Such as: lexicography, translation….etc). Our focus of linguistic application is the field of language teaching which focuses in turn on the learner and the language learning process. How is this language which is the object of study of the linguist being learnt? We have to investigate what happens in the mind of human beings through mental processes to learn a language.
There are several factors that play an important role in learning a language, one of which is attitude. Attitude is acknowledged as one of the most important factors that impacts on learning a language (Fakeye, 2010). Attitude is characterized by a large proportion of emotional involvement such as feelings, self, and relationships in the community (Brown, 2001). It is said that language teachers, researchers, and students should acknowledge that high motivation and positive attitude of students facilitate second language learning. Therefore, learners’ attitudes could be incorporated in language learning because it may influence their performance in acquiring the target language.
This is an important aspect of language learning, thus also of second language learning. According to Verspoor, Lowie and De Bot (2009), language acquisition cannot happen without input. If one already knows a language then proficiency can decline when it is not used, and even a first language can be forgotten (Verspoor et al., 2009, p. 71). Hence as input of English is essential to start of English learning and developing it, it is also of major importance for maintaining proficiency. According to Vanpatten (2009) SLA is a slow process with sometimes incomplete results, because to make sense of a sentence “does not mean that all formal aspects contained in the utterance are fodder for acquisition” (p. 49).
The common mistake committed by the students is, they take a sentence in English and an expression in their Mother-tongue; when both these elements are juxtaposed, it leads to ridiculous or imperfect expression. Hence the second language learner must be cautious to observe the difference between the two languages, either in expression or accent or tone or intonation. Generally English is considered and taught as a content subject, with an expectation of enabling the students to pass the Examination, which is getting fulfilled by the present methods of Teaching. The student starts to learn English at primary level, and passes through various levels such as secondary level, Intermediate level and comes to Graduation level. Throughout this period, the ultimate aim of the student is to learn a little grammar and some answers and to get through the examination.
It is also learning one thing while learners are intending to teach another (Richards & Schmidt, 2002). In terms of language acquisition, according to Omura and Hiramatsu (1991) incidental learning is considered as an effective way of learning vocabulary from context
Second Language acquisition is learning a second language after a first language is already established. Teaching a second language was mostly based on grammar and sentences, first, then on vocabulary. I think that if vocabulary would be taught first, learning would become easier for the children. This would help, then in learning grammar and sentences. Second language acquisition is a very crucial part of the learners’ life, not only children because there are adults who try to learn a second language, as well.
The first question tries to identify what second language learners acquire. In other words, there is an attempt to describe what learners come to know. In order to answer this question, there is a collection of learner's samples so as to see their production. The aim of this corpus is merely
3.6. Critical Thinking and Motivation One of the most crucial factors influencing second language learning is motivation. Motivation is a very complex phenomenon that is being studied by many linguists and language educators, as it has a significant role to play in the L2 acquisition. Some researchers incline to believe that motivation is a cause of learning, that is, first comes motivation – an impulse to learn – and next comes success. Others prefer to believe that motivation is rather a result of successful learning, that is, first comes success and then comes motivation – an impulse that pushes for further higher achievements.
In so doing, students’ learning experiences will be promoted and they will learn elements of language through the channel that best fits their learning preferences. Research shows that if teachers can give students instructions relevant to their learning styles, the performances are usually better (Dunn and Price, 1979; Oxford and Ehrman, 1993). Whenever the learners’ learning differences are fitted innately with the instructional procedure, their enthusiasm, performances, and achievement will be increased (Brown , 2007). From the research to date, it is clear that all language learners use language-learning strategies in some ways; however, the frequency and