On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language. This includes learning grammatical rules and semantic structure making. Krashen (1988) concludes that learning is less important than acquisition. However, he explains that this distinction is crucial as it explains how a big majority of adults are able to possess a second language. Keeping this in mind, I would argue that although the CPH hypothesis makes sense in explaining brain plasticity in acquiring a language, there is a way for adults to learn a second language albeit they might not do so perfectly.
In the English learning literature, the development of a positive attitude towards learning could be attributed to Integrativeness, or the genuine desire to learn a new language so that one can communicate with the members of the community who use the language as their medium of communication (Dörnyei, 1998). However, as the world has become more borderless as exemplified by the EU and the ASEAN, other attitudinal factors were conceptually included. The additions were attributed to the changing of concept from ‘English is a second language to learn’ to ‘English as an international language’(Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). This resulted to the addition of other attitudinal factors that include Direct contact with English speakers (attitude towards actually meeting English speakers and travelling to their countries) ; Cultural interest (appreciation of cultural products from English speaking countries conveyed by the media); Miliu (the general perception of the importance of English in the learners’ friends and family) (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). From the aforementioned attitudinal factors, the following hypotheses were
In essence, chunking is established as one of the mechanisms for human cognition process. It is crucial in explaining the relationship between the external environment and the internal cognitive processes (Reed, 2010). Empirical evidence in support of the relevance of chunking theory exists, especially in relation to the way that humans perceive words, paragraphs and words as single units, overshadowing their representation as comprising of collections of phonemes or letters. For example, the chunking theory explains how skilled readers have a tendency to be insensitive to deleted or repeated words. Studies that use information concerning timing of responses to ascertain the presence of chunks exemplifies evidence on the relevance of the chunking theory are particularly useful in understanding effectiveness.
L2 socialization represents a process by which non-native speakers of a language, or people returning to a language they may have once understood or spoken but may since have lost proficiency in, seek competence in the language and, typically, membership and the ability to participate in the practices of communities in which that language is spoken. Their experiences may take place in a variety of language contact settings: in settings where the additional language is widely spoken and may be the dominant language of society (e.g., L2 learners of English in the United States); where it is used in more isolated or confined contexts, such as a high school or university foreign language classroom (e.g., learners of French in Mexico); in diaspora settings where minority groups who speak the target language exist (learners of Yiddish or Vietnamese in New York or Melbourne); or in virtual communities mediated by digital communication technologies (e.g., nonnative learners and users of Mandarin in various parts of the world connected through online learning, gaming, or discussion sites often with the intention of improving their Mandarin). The languages may be learned more or less concurrently with the first language (L1), in bilingual contexts, or sequentially alongside this additional-language socialization, learners normally continue their linguistic socialization into and through their first (or perhaps other) languages because language socialization is both a lifelong process and a “lifewide” process across the communities and activities or speech events at any given time in one’s life (Garrett & Baquedano-Lopez, 2002; Ochs, 1986; Ochs & Schieffelin, 2008). The word second in second language socialization is a cover term that is sometimes controversial precisely
3.2. Contrastive analysis hypothesis The habit formation theory as we saw in section 3.1 had a big influence on a pedagogic area. It was thought that L2 learner would have a trouble in acquiring linguistic items that have different features from their L1 and could acquire relatively easily linguistic items that have similar features to their L1 to the contrary. Then, on the basis of those thought, a new theory on a L2 acquisition and teaching theory appeared. The theory is called “contrastive analysis hypothesis (CAH)”.
Introduction Bilingual education is an academic approach followed by some instructors, which is using the native language for new English learners for instructions. Within the international context, bilingual education has become a necessity due to the high number of immigration, colonialism and the great number of local languages (Yushau, B. & Bokhari, M.A, 2005). This approach in instruction has reflected back positively or negatively in many dimensions such as social, psychological, and pedagogical. However, bilingual education instruction is an effective way of teaching English as a second language, in case of well implementation it can be seen as an educational advantage.
Integration meaning, not excluding English learners from English speakers. Doing so can have detrimental effects on the English learners, because when they are excluded from the regular classroom, they more often than not fall behind the standard. Thomas and Collier state that their preferred method of language education is some sort of bilingual enrichment or immersion. Immersion is when children are taught in two languages, when they begin school, 90% of instruction is in the minority language. This method proved to make the students proficient in both languages.
Based on the understanding, there are two reasons why we have the attitudes of learning second language – all of these are interrelated. The first reason why we learn second language is because we want to participate in the target language group’s cultural activities and the other crucial reason is in order for us to get a better job or for the sake of passing the examination. This is true as in Malaysian context, yes, we are learning English and regard it as second most important language that need to be mastered because it serves few significant reasons and one of those reasons is being stated. We have to always bear in mind that attitudes are not stoic as it is undeniably changed through learning process depending on whether the materials used are appropriate
They are analytic skills and synthetic skills. Analytic skills involves the ability to break words into its phonemes while synthetic skills involves the ability to blend different phonemes to make words. A study done to identify the influence of alphabetic knowledge and oral vocabulary on phonemic awareness has found that oral vocabulary is an important predictor of analytical phoneme skills (Ouellette & Haley, 2013). This is an interesting finding as most would have assumed that alphabetic knowledge is a key aspect in teaching a child to read. However, according to the results of this research oral vocabulary plays a more significant role than alphabetic knowledge when learning to read.
The results indicated that in spite of being at a lower vocabulary level in the beginning, bilinguals showed more advanced processing of verbal material. They were more advantageous in comparison to monolingual children in terms of the readiness to impute and reorganize structures Ben-Zeev (1977). However, the study required further work to determine whether the effects of bilingualism on cognition found in the study was situation-specific or could be generalized to other situations.She adds that the process of second-language acquisition can be clarified by differentiating between two dimensions of proficiency, the attribute-based and input-based aspects of proficiency. The cognitive and personality variables are examples of attributes that influence proficiency in acquiring a second language. The input-based aspects of proficiency are related to the quality and quantity of L2’s input from the environment.