In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone. In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
Abstract In this experiment, the reaction kinetics of the hydrolysis of t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, was studied. The experiment was to determine the rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effects of solvent composition on the rate of reaction. A 50/50 V/V isopropanol/water solvent mixture was prepared and 1cm3 of (CH3)3CCl was added. At specific instances, aliquots of the reaction mixture were withdrawn and quenched with acetone. In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator.
1. For the demo experiment, the balanced chemical equation is as follows: (NH4)2Cr2O7(s)=Cr2O3(s)+N2(g)+4H2O(g). After the lightning of Ammonium dichromate, Chromium (III) oxide was formed while the Nitrogen and Water escaped into the atmosphere in a gaseous phase. Ammonium dichromate((NH4)2Cr2O7) gave rise to Chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3), Nitrogen Gas(N2) and water (H2O) In terms of microscopic level, the ratio between reactants and products is as follows. One mole of Ammonium dichromate will give rise to one mole of 1 mole of Chromium (III) oxide and 1 mole of Nitrogen gas and 4 moles of Water is gaseous phase.
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
Determination of the molar mass of a chosen compound/element Fran Jurinec 1.M Introduction Molar mass is a physical property of a chemical element or substance which shows the mass per amount of substance. My task is to determine the molar mass of a product substance from one of the following equations: a. Zn(s) + 2HCl (aq) → ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) b. CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O(l) c. Na2SO3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) → 2NaCl (aq) + S (s) + SO2 (g) For my experiment, I chose to determine the molar mass of SO2, which is a product from the 2nd equation. For this experiment I have determined the independent, dependent and controlled variables and they are: Independent variables: Volume of HCl used [ V(HCl) ] Dependent:
Luminol 5. Introduction In this experiment, luminol was prepared from 3-nitrophthalic acid and hydrazine under high heat. 3-nitrophthalic acid and hydrazine produced the precipitate 3-nitrophthalhydrazine, which was isolated using vacuum filtration. 3-nitrophthalhydrazine reacts with sodium dithionite to produce luminol. The solid luminol was isolated by vacuum filtration, then its chemiluminescence was demonstrated through its reaction with iron from a solution of potassium ferricyanide.
Initially, the conversion of benzyl alcohol in to benzaldehyde was chosen as a model reaction to optimize the reaction conditions. Effect of reaction time and mmol of H2O2 on progress of oxidation reaction was studied (Fig. 4. the experiment was performed with 20 mg catalyst, 10 ml acetonitrile and two different amount of H2O2 1 and 2 mmol for 1mmol benzyl alcohol at reflux condition (85 ºC ) and plotted with respect to the time. With increasing the mole ratio of BzOH : H2O2 from 1:1 to 1:2, the conversion of benzyl alcohol increased from 75% to 93%. The conversion also increased with increasing time of reaction and then remain constant at 180 min.
As we know acid reacts with bubbles when combined with sodium bicarbonate. 2. Write the chemical equation for the reaction in well A6. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript3 Words NaOh + AgNO3>>>>NaNO3 + AgOH 3. One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)?
An infrared spectrum was run on the product to be compared to the starting material. The starting material had peaks at 2900 cm-1, and 1700 cm-1, corresponding to the Csp3-H of alkanes, and the C=O of a carbonyl ketone. The product’s IR spectrum had a peak at 3400 cm-1 and 2900 cm-1, indicating the prescence of an alcohol and Csp3-H of alkanes. The Jones test was performed using cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone as controls, and testing the starting material, 2-methylcyclohexanone, and the product. The product yielded a positive result, indicating the presence of an alcohol functional group.
When an aromatic compound such as phenol undergoes nitration, it does so through an Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS). Undergoing this reaction requires two steps. The first step is the addition of the electrophile, which in this lab was the Nitronium ion formed by the dilute nitric acid solution. This is the rate determining step for this reaction, as during this step aromaticity is lost and the arenium ion is formed. The position of the electrophile to be added is determined by how well the arenium ion can be stabilized once the initial addition occurs.
Methodology: The distillation column was analyzed theoretically using McCabe Thiele to establish the number of stages required for separation. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for methanol and 2-propanol was used to plot curves of methanol-vapor fraction versus methanol-liquid fraction, and methanol liquid-vapor fraction versus temperature. III. Results: From the results, the average efficiency was 0.4308, 0.3778, and 0.4956 at 0.57kW supplied (30.58 mL/min Feed; 26.30 mL/min Boil Up), 0.94kW (30.58 mL/min Feed; 52.96 mL/min Boil Up), and 1.27kW (30.58 mL/min Feed; 77.50 mL/min Boil Up) respectively. From the experiment, it was observed that the quality
To find the number of moles of each reactant added, volume in liters was multiplied by the molarity (concentration). 2. The second step is about finding the theoretical yield, which will help to determine the correct amount of Ca(OH)2 can be made in chemical reaction. However, before doing this, it’s necessary to find whether CaCl2 or NaOH is a limiting reagent. For each test, the limiting reagent is found by multiplying the number of moles of the reactant by 1 mole of Ca(OH)2 and dividing then by a number of moles of reactant from the reaction.
The objective of this experiment was to use an aldol condensation reaction to synthesize 3-nitrochalcone from 3- nitrobenzaldehyde. This was accomplished with a Diels-Alder reaction that utilized 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, acetophenone, ethanol, and sodium hydroxide. The mechanism for the synthesis of 3-nitrochalcone is presented in Figures 1 and 2. The alpha carbon on the acetophenone is deprotonated. This is followed by the attack of the alpha carbon anion on the carbonyl carbon on the 3-nitrobenzaldehyde.