Secondary Education In India

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Prior to independence, the educational system in India was of ten years consisting of middle and high schools. English, Vernacular languages, Mathematics, History, Geography and Science were the major subjects to be taught. After Independence the educational system of the country was critically examined by the University Education Commission, set up in 1948, under the chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. The Commission revealed that secondary education is the weakest link in the chain of the educational system of the country. Subsequently, the Secondary Education Commission (1953) was set to examine the weaknesses of secondary education system. The Commission found that “the curriculum is bookish, and examination- centred with an over-emphasis…show more content…
D. S. Kothari. The commission recommended a uniform pattern of education comprising five years of primary education, eight years of elementary education (including primary and upper primary stage), two years of secondary education followed by two years of higher secondary education. The commission also recommended that Science and mathematics were made compulsory upto grade ten. But the commission had failed to given weightage to different subjects. The recommendations of this commission formed the basis for the National Policy on Education announced in 1968. From time to time, the national government formulates the National Policy on Education which includes broad guidelines regarding content and process of education at different stages. These guidelines are further elaborated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). Using as its foundation the NPEs of 1968 and 1986, NCERT launched two curriculum initiatives: (1) The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—a framework (1975); and (2) The National Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary Education—a framework (1988). In 2000, NCERT brought out a National Curriculum Framework for School Education. Following the basic principle of curriculum planning, NCERT monitored, reviewed and revised appropriately its policy and then developed National Curriculum Framework 2005. 4.3.1.1 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66): The Kothari…show more content…
For this purpose a group of Experts was appointed. The Group was expanded in 1974 and the NCERT organized the massive exercise of curriculum development. Finally, in 1975, a curriculum with curricular inputs and curricular sub-processes was prepared entitled, “The Curriculum for the Ten Year School – A Framework.” The framework provides an impetus to the teaching of environmental studies, science and mathematics as a part of general education curriculum from the primary level. The re-orientation of science teaching first initiated through the new curriculum and the development of the activity –based instructional material, gradually culminated in a national movement for popularizing science among school -children. The stage wise school curriculum of A Framework-1975 is given

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