( Joan Scott) The ideas about women being more spiritual and less intellectual were widespread among secularist movements in Europe. Moreover, the previously discussed differences suggested in religiosity of genders were reasons for low participation of women in early secularist movement (Infidel Feminism). Women were often excluded from the secularist movement as it emphasised rationalist intellectualism which was not compatible with Victorian understanding of femininity. Therefore, it would be misleading to suggest that secularism is inherently a feminist principle. Despite that, secularism was embraced by feminists and eventually adopted as a principle favouring gender-equality for its stance on neutrality of citizenship and a potential to ensure a weaker role of the Church in state affairs, which would ease the campaigning for gender equality.
In regards to secularism, he points out that modernism undermines traditional change. On the tradition of a religious market model, Olson states that governments in Europe have done much in supporting churches at the detriments of the citizen’s traditional religious preferences. On the third tradition, Olson states that modernism only undermines religious institutions, but not values. In fact, this might explain why there are some tussles between different religious institutions. The most important role of religion in this regard is to shape the way people think about themselves and others around
Someone who identifies themself to be secular, may look at life missing of supernatural or godly abilities and anomalies. They may look towards reason and scientific method than religious literature for how to steer their lives. Another meaning, which refers more towards the point of this essay, is political secularism, which is the motion that political institutions hold true to the laws of governance, and not to adhere to church or religion for instruction. For the better part of human history, church has had strong ties to many government entities. The Roman Catholic Church had very strong influence over the vast majority of Western Europe.
In this task, secular discourse needs to converge with religious feminist discourse. I argue, that the religious feminist discourse is most effective in religious context with its effort to conduct a feminist reform of religious doctrine and institutions. Here is the true mission and greatest potential of religious feminist discourse. The goal of the secular discourse revolution in the relationship between monotheist religions
I personally believe that secularization is a decline of personal beliefs and practices, and by this definition I would describe Denmark as a secular society. I think ascribing the label of “secular society” to Denmark, and any country for that matter, comes with a lot of difficulty.
A liberal democracy also features absolute protection of an individual’s political and civil liberties. Liberal democracies are also seen as high quality democracies where minority’s rights are protected, freedom, equality and civic culture are held in high regard and protected through the power of the people. It is from the idea of liberalism that extensive freedom is provided to persons. Liberties such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the freedom to assemble and peaceful protest, the freedom of movement, the freedom of religious and sexual practice and the freedom of identity and cultural expression. .
The religious and the secular. But the world is not so black and white. Although the nature of the Unbelievers’ existence suggests the very opposite, unbelief itself is a religion, albeit a postsecular one. The Unbelievers do everything expected of a religious group: they prescribe to a certain set of ideas (unbelief), form communities around these ideas, and label themselves in accordance to these ideas. The fact that their main ideology is centered on disbelief is irrelevant – they still participate in ceremony, actively share their (un)beliefs, and view their community in terms of “self” and “other.” The Heart of Redness serves as a perfect example of postsecular religion.
APPLICATION OF SECULARISM: Secularization process is an application of the secularism which is an ideology or doctrine that rejects religion or emphasizes on the exclusion of religion from social and political matters. Implicitly, secularization is an effort to implement secularism and to encourage the privatization of religion that encompasses the political, social and culture aspects of man’s life. In this process, the role of religion become restricted and loses its authority in all aspects of social life and governance. Secularization first arose within the culture of Christian West and the sources basically derived from Bible. [ Harvey Cox, The Secular City:Secularization and Urbanization in Theological Perspectives(NewYork:Princeton
Liberalism has evolved over time and mostly seen because of many ideologies that have either been tried and tested or rejected. According to (Raz 1986) it is a political tradition that has developed and become a more popular political force in the western world. By this concept of liberalism we mean to highlight the essence of freedom and equality as well as justice and fairness for the individual. It places importance on the rule of law, also meaning that the 'pen is mightier than the sword '. In liberalism many other concepts are generated and reborn, although making it a quiet complex and broad ideology it opens one 's eye and gives a clear understanding on what really influences the society; political and economic world at large.
According to Langdon Gilkey, an American Protestant Ecumenical theologian, secularism is “the cultural Geitst within which all forms of thought, including the theological, must operate if they are to be relevant and creative”(64). Gilkey continues to say that secularism exists on presuppositions level and so expressed in different forms of a given culture’s life, and thereby not an easy thing to characterize briefly (Gilkey 64). This is true especially when one attempts to define the meaning of secularism in a place like India, a land of multiple cultures and religions. Secularism seems “incongruous” as Badrinath Rao, a professor in Sociology and Asian Studies, rightly asserts (47). It has multifaceted expressions and it means different things