Social change stems from conflicts between the relations and forces of production . However, as an “ideological form” , religion only arises when the ruling classes – those in control of the mode of production – represent their interest as the common interest. Ideas that served these interests also became “the only rational, universally valid ones” . Therefore, while Marx would agree with Tocqueville that religion promotes the incumbent social order, he notes that religion traces its origins and growth from the mode of production . Religion thus serves to solidify the unjust status of the ruling class , rather than pave the way for the stadial progress of history.
In this sense, even though there is great distinction between Durkheim and the film Baraka, there is also great comparison. Emile Durkheim mentions collective conscience throughout his book: Division of Labour in Society in 1893. Collective conscience is ideas and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society. Collective conscience could only be seen in a traditional society since they are more of a collective group, than a modern society would ever be. The traditional society is seen as a collective conscience because religion brings the group together.
It was the age when the State was separated from the Church. Voltaire and Denis Diderot were two of the most notable philosophers of this era, who shared their ideas about religious tolerance and intolerance. Such ideas are detailed in their works “Candide” (Voltaire) and “Intolerance”, which is an article from “Encyclopedie” (Denis Diderot). This paper will examine the works of these exceptional religious thinkers. Voltaire has an atheist mindset about Religion while Diderot apparently values the Scriptures.
On the other hand, the Great Awakening appealed to the less wealthy because it was for people’s emotions. The religious movement came over from Europe. The Enlightenment focused on reasons, science, rationality, and progress. The Enlightenment believed God made all men equal and that governor is born by the people. The Great Awakening cut across social, economic, and educational lines.
Marx thought people’s life will become better unless abolishing religion through revolution. Freud also thought if people have no religious belief，will have better life. They were trying hard to uncover the ignorance of religious from a scientific point of view，but there are loopholes in both their point of views. The communistic society which Marx appreciated belongs to materialism，it is opposite with the religion which belongs with idealism. But in ancient times，the structure of the society is similar with the communistic society proposed by Marx.
Within our current society, many individuals who have acclaimed their religious values are given the representation that secular families have no proper guidance to fulfill a justifiable career. In the op-ed “How Secular Family Values Stack Up,” sociology professor Phil Zuckerman elaborates on the concept of secular families and their reasonable linkage towards current society. He claims that the absence of religion allows for greater acceptance of the world while having very positive effects on overall morals and values. Zuckerman supports his argument by explaining that secular families are more impactful within our society through multiple studies and experiences of others along with his own research. Additionally, Zuckerman provides
Smith was thought to be the founder of liberalism and "looked forward to a new world, which would escape the sophistry and meanness of medieval Christian thought, but would recourse to...authoritarian political oppression." Smith believed in gaining income while taking as little risk as possible. He thought to avoid government interference with free markets there would have to be a constitutional government. He also thought states should be held accountable for "stipends of the priests." Due to Smith’s views of religion, he became rather unpopular with liberals in the nineteenth century.
In a secular sense the philosopher would be better off staying out of the cave. The other view is that the individual philosopher would be worse off if he or she stayed out of the cave because he or she has become more of an unjust person. Becoming more unjust doesn’t make you better off on a personal
Marx and Nietzsche both agreed that religion is unnecessary. Marx viewed religion as a form of dissent from the working class. He believed that using religion was an expression of the individual`s personal suffering. Therefore, humans made religion to run away from their daily problems, in the end creating more problems with the concept of religion itself. Marx viewed religion as something made by humans to provide reasoning and answers for their questions and desires.
Government laws are necessary for our communities because if people do not agree with the government, it does not mean government decision are incorrect. In “Civil Disobedience,” Thoreau talks about government and points out the flaws in the government system. On the other hand, in “ The Grapes of Wrath,” Steinbeck talk on the birth of civilization from physical and governmental issues. Although, many cases Thoreau and Steinbeck perspectives on government contradicts with each other however they both share similar thoughts about self-government. In contrast, Thoreau begins his essay by criticizing the government system, and he believed that government is ineffective because of the stringent and barbarous laws.