Security Issues In Aviation

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Introduction
Right from the beginning of the civil aviation, the aviation industry has dealt with multiple risks, threats, and challenges. Particularly from the 1970s, terrorism has been an on-going problem, posing tremendous threats to the global aviation industry through hijackings, shootings, and bomb attacks (Thomas, 2008). The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA), which came into law after the September 11, 2001 attacks, allowed significant changes in the civil aviation security policies and established the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to successfully execute 100% security screening on all checked baggage by 2010 to further strengthen the airport and cargo security (Elias, 2010). Despite constant efforts by
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Then, a new law came into effect, introducing the metal detectors and X-ray screening at airports. In 1980s, after experiencing cases with explosives hidden in the baggage, airports started to introduce new security questions at the passengers to improve airport security (BBC News, 2016). For example, in the U.S., every checked baggage was required to undergo X-ray screening after the 1988 Lockerbie bomb attack. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U.S. Congress enacted the ATSA, which established the TSA. All kinds of liquids, gels, and toiletries had to undergo TSA’s inspection (BBC News, 2016). In 2007, the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 enacted a law to carry out 100% physical screening on each cargo loaded onto the passenger flight by 2010 (BBC News, 2016). Full-body scanners were introduced at various parts of the world to detect hidden items on the passengers. In the U.S., the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) declared to revamp security measures at the airports by enforcing Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT), introducing more canine groups, implementing more pat-down searches, strengthening intelligence exchange among domestic and international intelligence agencies to combat against potential risks or threats, particularly after the 2009 Christmas Day bomb attempt against Northwest Airlines Flight 253 (BBC…show more content…
There were limited experienced security screeners to detect potential threats such as guns, bombs, cutting items, and airborne pathogens on passengers and their baggage (Taylor, & Steedman, 2003). Majority of the screeners lacked experience, earned little, and had low morale. These factors could often lead the turnover rates to hit even beyond 100% per year at majority of the big airports (Taylor, & Steedman, 2003).
Prior to the September 11, 2001 attacks, the security access areas of the airport infrastructure also lacked adequate security measures and strict regulations. According to the Department of Transportation (DOT), fake law enforcement badges and credentials were utilized to obtain unauthorized access to the secure areas around 70% of the time, easily getting through the airports’ security checkpoints, and even making it through the departure gates of the aircraft in May 2000 (Taylor, & Steedman, 2003). Hence, raising serious risk concerns regarding the lapses in aviation security measures, as well as a serious need for employee background screening.
Before the September 11, 2001 attacks, a passenger could easily board the

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