2.1 General Seismic evaluation and retrofitting strategies are mainly focused in this thesis. However, there are many good references that can be used as a starting point for research such as ATC40 manual for seismic evaluation and retrofitting of concrete buildings. This chapter focuses on recent contributions related to seismic evaluation and various retrofitting schemes and past efforts most closely related to the needs of the present work. For, the purpose of the present investigation, the literature is break down into following areas: a) Seismic evaluation. b) Retrofitting strategies.
Author represents a phase in the process of building the site. Where the common problems in the structure of the assembly process. At the present time, the unit ready-made concrete shear system designed and constructed in non-seismic zones. The use of this system is very limited in active seismic areas because of lack of knowledge of this type of Construction under seismic loading conditions. structural integrity of units ready-made clothes building the wall and is influenced by the behavior of the communication between units ready the wall elements.
Chapter I Introduction I.1. Overview Mechanical, aeronautical or civil structures need to be lighter, stronger and more flexible because of the demands of safety and reliability. Furthermore predicting the response of a structure to an excitation is so critical. Because of these facts, vibration analysis of structures become a popular subject for engineers. Making experiments on a structure, constructing a mathematical model, controlling the structure or designing strong and stabilized structures are the main studies of vibration analysis.
Risk assessment through fault tree evaluation After the fault tree is constructed, both qualitative and quantitative evaluation can be performed. The constructed fault tree itself is a qualitative illustration of the events and relationships that lead to the top event and provides significant insights and understanding into the cause of system failure. The qualitative analysis is conducted from an algebraic point of view, also called logic analysis. Its principal purpose is to determine the structure function of the fault tree concerning the top event, primarily the minimal cut sets and minimal path sets. A cut set is a combination of basic events that can cause the top event; and thus a minimal cut set is the smallest combination of basic
REVIEW PAPER ON BEHAVIOR OF FLAT SLAB UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING Sukanya Sawant1, Student M Tech (STR Engg), GHRCE Nagpur, and Prof. K. R. Dhabhekar2, Asst. Prof. Civil Engg Dept., GHRCE Nagpur. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com ABSTRACT Structures with a large degree of indeterminacy is more to one with less indeterminacy, if yielding takes place in any one of them and members are monolithically connected to each other, then a redistribution of forces takes place. So it is necessary to study analysis of seismic behavior of building. Flat slab building structures are significantly flexible than traditional concrete wall structures or frame structures (beam-column-slab), thus becoming more
CHAPTER NO: - 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1GENERAL 1.1.1 Seismic evaluation An approved process or methodology of evaluating deficiencies in a building prevents the building from achieving life safety objective. There are many buildings which do not meet the current seismic requirement and suffer extensive damage during the earthquake. Evaluating the building for seismic conditions give an idea whether the building is able to resist the earthquake load or not. The objective is to evaluate an existing building for earthquake performance. Firstly preliminary evaluation is done and then detailed evaluation is carried out.
Coastal Engineers – Evaluate the evidence that TTR and Objectors have gathered on the coastal effects. Marine Geologists – Evaluate the evidence that TTR and Objectors have gathered on the ocean floor and coastal zone effects. Trans-Tasman Resources Ltd: Marine Geologists – Investigate the effects that the work proposed will have on the ocean floor and coastal zone. Environmental Engineer – Evaluate the options for mitigation that TTR are proposing to counteract the environmental effects. Marine Engineers – Design and review the vessels needed for the project to succeed.
Structural Geology is the branch of geology dealing with the structure and distribution of the rocks that make up the crust of the earth. It is the study of permanent deformations and rock failure created due to the changes in stress through geologic time. The processes that result in the formation of geologic structures and how these structures affect rocks are studied in the structural geology. Simply it is the study about Architecture of Bedrock. GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES Geological structures are usually the result of the powerful tectonic forces that occur within the earth.
2 Figure 2 2 : Liquefaction in action 2 Figure 2 3:Coseismal surface fault 2 Figure 2 4:tusnami, japan, 2011 3 Figure 2 5The Earth’s layers (strata) shown to scale. Credit: pubs.usgs.gov 3 Figure 2 6:The boiling point of water is 100 ℃ Jody Dole/Getty Images 3 Figure 2 7:The Earth's layers Credit: discovermagazine.com 3 Figure 2-8:Tectonic plate boundaries 4 Figure 3 1: surface waves copyright © 2002 published by Houghton Mifflin 5 Figure 3 2:Kinemetrics seismograph is formerly used by United States Department of the Interior. 5 Figure 4 1:Seismic Hazard Map and Seismic Zone Factor. (Source ESSEC, USAID-MERC (M18-057), Project) 6 Figure 4 2:Earthquake Preparedness Plans and Kits 8 Figure 5 1: For design in various ground 10 ABSTRACT Your life is important to us, so we try to look to reduce the effects of these problems that abolish your comfort, including earthquakes, which result in the waves caused by moving the rocks in the ground to reach us and to our facilities. So, the aim of this paper to search for these waves and analyzed it to know when the earthquake will come and how its strength by seismograph device, and how our structure can withstand for deflection of these forces and restrict them as much as possible to prevent it from collapsing so we will see the solutions that will link the elements of the structure with an iron