The concrete should be used as efficient as possible. Nowadays researches efforts are continuously looking for new, better and efficient construction method. Various theories related to the analysis of structural elements reduced the self-weight of element for a given load- carrying capacity. Structural material optimization can reduce the dead load which reduce the contribution of seismic effect in high rise structures and also very good at the vibration dampers and heat isolation. According to the natural behaviour of the concrete, it is strong in compression and weak in tension.
The tensile strength of the material increases because the subsequent application of tensile stress must nullify the compressive prestress. • This can result in improved structural capacity and serviceability compared to conventionally reinforced concrete. • High-strength tendons are used to produce compression. They are made of high- tensile steels, carbon fibers etc. and consist of threaded bars, single or multiple
Physically, Poly (ether sulphone) appears as a semitransparent material (with transparency in the range of 76%) on account of its being amorphous. Being amorphous also gives it a higher dimensional stability as it does not shrink too much upon cooling. Poly (ether sulphone) is highly resistant to attack my chemical agents including but not limited to alkalis, acids and various concentrated electrolytes. Poly (ether sulphone) is stable under the pH range of 2 – 14. In addition, Poly (ether sulphone) is stable in oxidizing agents and various non-polar solvents.
The percentage of acid selected for the mixing was 1.1% and 1.5% with 2% furfural. This mixing was carried out on the 60 - 70 binder. The results show that, this combination tends to make the binder stiffer than original. It decreased the fatigue resistance of the binder by increasing the fatigue parameter of the pav aged material. The results can be seen in table 1.This combination can be used with antioxidants that relatively soften the binder to get the desired stiffness.
Powder metallurgy is defined as the process of mixing of powder materials in some desired ratio, compacting the powder mixture to some higher pressures in a compaction die so that the bond formation would takes place followed by the sintering process at higher temperatures (nearly around melting temperatures) so as to achieve sufficient strength. The resulting parts are solid bodies of material with sufficient strength and density for use in diverse fields. Highly porous parts, precise high performance components and composite materials can be produced by P/M route. P/M offers compositional flexibility, minimized segregation and ability to produce graded microstructures with varying physical and mechanical properties. P/M also offers advantages
This is because the steel is hard but brittle and has internal stresses. The solution to this is by tempering to increase toughness, reduce the brittleness but in turn reduces hardness. Tempering a steel heats up the steel to temperatures ranging from 200-500°C depending on the desired mechanical properties. Heating after the quenching allows the carbon to diffuse into the martensite to relieve internal stresses. The end result would be the shock absorption capability which depends on the tempering temperature (higher the temperature, higher the shock
Northridge Earthquake 1994 Northridge earthquake 1994, one of the most well-known earthquake by Californian people. January 17, 1994, at 4:31 AM this Northridge earthquake struck Los Angeles, California. The earthquake was not happened in the city of Los Angeles, but it happened near San Fernando Valley, 16.5 miles northwest of Los Angeles. With the power of 6.7 Ritcher scale, the earthquake struck the city of Los Angeles, California. This earthquake caused 60 deaths, 9,000 people injured.
The designed olibanum gum capped AuNPs are highly stable, and have shown effective catalyst in the reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP and electron transfer reaction between K3[Fe(CN)6] and NaBH4. The detailed kinetic features of catalytic reaction was evaluated by changing the reaction conditions. It is also observed that as the catalyst amount increases the reaction temperature, the rate of the reaction increases and reaction time
This excess water also greatly reduces the strength of the concrete. Cracks in con-crete occur due to various mechanisms such as shrinkage, freeze-thaw reactions and mechanical compressive and tensile forces. Structural cracks in residential founda-tions usually result from settlement or horizontal loading. Most (but not all) struc-tural cracks resulting from applied loads are nearly horizontal (parallel to the floor) and occur 16” to 48” from the top of the wall. They are much more prevalent con-crete block construction.
And two things are to be taken care while designing air vessel: 1) First is its strength to withstand high internal pressure, which exists due to compressed air. For this outer body of it should be made of a material, having high strength, like carbon fiber. 2) Secondly, we replace the cam with a modified cam which helps in opening and closing an outlet valves at a same time, hence increasing efficiency. This in turn converts our 4-stroke engine into 2-stroke engine giving us operational benefits.