Type 2 buildings are known for their fail when it is exposed to heat or fire. The roofs are known to collapse early. The roof of a type 2 building is the most sensitive part of the building. That 's why is very important for the safety of the firefighter to be careful when they are in a roof of a noncombustible building. Once firefighters are on the roof, a good habit is to sound the roof to determine if the roof is stable to be in.
Portland cement mixed with sand, gravel and water, a process called hydration, is how concrete is created. Crushed stone aggregate fine and coarse aggregates make up the bulk of a concrete mixture. Durability of concrete may be defined as the ability of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack, and abrasion while maintaining its desired engi-neering properties. Different concretes require different degrees of durability de-pending on the exposure environment and properties desired. For example, concrete exposed to tidal seawater will have different requirements than an indoor concrete floor.
Concrete: cellular concrete of clay- gypsum and invention of light weight concrete Ferro concrete: this concrete is made up of a layer of fine mesh wire saturated with cement. Gunite: or commonly referred as a shot crete. This type or form of concrete is most commonly used in areas where formwork is limited or hard to use. Shoring up exposed vertical excavations, banks or surfaces susceptible to collapse. For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces.
For instance, proposals for structural design, building services systems, outline specifications and primary cost are for the strategies in accordance with design stage, and agree the alterations to brief and issue final project brief. Also, in this design development plan of concept stage, it is needed to concern the building sizing, shape and disposition of the space within building and defined by its fabric and with the nature and form the building fabric and its services which are the building structure and building services systems, updated outline specifications and the financing. Then finish the project brief and the application for planning
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH COPPER SLAG AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE J.UshaKranti1, K.Srinivasu2, A.NagaSai3 1. Asst.Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, R.V.R.&J.C. College of Engineering, Guntur, A.P.,India. 2. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, R.V.R.&J.C.
of architecture which including history, identity, culture, prosperity or spirit of a city. Accordingly, to reach this process of the dialectics of nature, tradition, and modern avant-garde architecture, Frampton constituted a theoretical background representing critical regionalism. In addition to that critical regionalism adopts the principle of the tectonic reality and place in architecture. In other words, the architect should create the tectonic reality by using the physical dimensions of the site consisting of topography, climate; the sensual features consisting of light, heat, weather movements as well as the visual features and even the materials that are taken by the foreign resources as well as the local resources. For this, the integration
The report also revealed the reason behind earthquake reoccurrence in the areas. The 1906 earthquake and the Lawson report indicated the importance of accurate, widespread and repeated observation of earthquakes and the faults on which the occur. This report led to understanding of earthquakes in the region. In addition, this report led to understanding of when the San Andreas is expected to experience another earthquake. Although the report released by Lawson provided insight about earthquake occurrence, it cannot help scientists and geologists to accurately predict when the next earthquake will occur.
An example of this was the two 6 storey reinforced concrete buildings in the 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake discussed above. Components of a building that are sensitive to floor accelerations in an earthquake include the mechanical and electrical equipment, the contents, the manufacturing processes, elevators, sprinkler systems and ceiling and lights. The order of magnitude reduction in floor accelerations provided by base isolation greatly enhances the safety of all of these components of a
Burke wrote mostly about the aftermath of the earthquake, while Hewitt wrote about the actual earthquake as it happened.The eyewitness accounts, “Comprehending The Calamity” by Burke, and “Horrific Wreck Of The City”, by Hewitt have similar tension, but different setting. The similarity between “Comprehending The Calamity” and “Horrific Wreck Of The City” is tension. On page