2.1 General Seismic evaluation and retrofitting strategies are mainly focused in this thesis. However, there are many good references that can be used as a starting point for research such as ATC40 manual for seismic evaluation and retrofitting of concrete buildings. This chapter focuses on recent contributions related to seismic evaluation and various retrofitting schemes and past efforts most closely related to the needs of the present work. For, the purpose of the present investigation, the literature is break down into following areas: a) Seismic evaluation. b) Retrofitting strategies.
The SASW, otherwise known as the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, is an instrument that measures the “soil deposits and stiffness characteristics on the ocean floor.” These are especially useful for depicting sand deposits that previously, were hard to depict (“Technology and Tools”). This idea of using sound waves to to decipher the depth of the ocean was used in World
Swell have a long, smooth surface and these waves never break in deep sea. Swell may have very long period. As wave approach shallow water, wave heights increase and wavelength decreases. Consequently, wave steepness (H/L) increases. The waves become unstable when height is about eight tenths of the water depth and forms a
Measure of Dispersion Measure of Location Measure of location helps to report a typical value in the set of observations. The five measure of location are: 1. Arithmetic Mean Arithmetic mean is calculated by adding all the values in the data set then dividing it with the number
Refraction: Refraction occurs when light enters a more or less optically dense medium, which therefore has a different refractive index (measure of the velocity light can travel at in the medium compared to in a vacuum in which it can travel at 2.9 x 108ms-1). This causes the light’s speed to increase or decrease, which results in the rays bending towards or away from the normal, so the position of the image formed is dependent on the refractive indices of the two media. For refraction to occur, the light rays have to hit the boundary between media at an angle to the normal (which is 90 degrees to the boundary), otherwise no change in direction will occur, only a change in velocity. Therefore, if the light rays hit the boundary between the different media at a perpendicular (90 degree) angle, they will continue to go straight. This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction).
Thus the delicate part (the mirrors) of the system can be rigidly fixed. The image width at the absorber is ideally the same as projected the projected width of mirror element. Thus, the concentration ratio is approximately the same as the number of mirror elements, ignoring the solar beam spread .As the aperture is fixed and concave in shape ,the mirror strips result in shading with very high or very low sun altitude angles .Also due to strips ,edge losses occur during reflection .However, mirrors can be suitably designed to have less than 10% of the total energy lost over a years time .Some models have shown overall efficiencies in the range of
Analysis of the Wave Nature of Light through the Study of Diffraction and Interference Patterns Deligero, Lawrence1, Maquinto, Charles2, Payoran, John Aldrin3*, Raymundo, Francisco1 1Department of Mining Metallurgical and Materials Engineering 2Department Industrial Engineering and Operations Research 3Deparment of Geodetic Engineering College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines *John Aldrin Payoran: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract In this conducted experiment, the wave-like characteristics of light were studied and observed. This was done using the concepts of interference and diffraction. Interference is exhibited when light passes through narrow slits. Due to constraints, a slit will always be of finite
The scattered waves are parallel to the surface of metal. Other method of surface Plasmon Polariton is striking by photon but, for that purpose both have the same frequency and momentum so use prism for excitation of photon. The dispersion relation of the waves represent the level of spreading on the metal which mostly depend upon the nature of waves striking, its frequency and wave number. Dispersion speed are different in different wavelength of waves, so speed of wave is function of its wavelength. The dispersion relation of a wave determined by the angular frequency and its wavenumber like as, w(k)=v(k).k in which w(k) is angular frequency and k is wave number.
Spherical Aberration is when light rays refract through the lens and focus at different points, as shown on the diagram where the light rays (in red) do not converge at the same point. The diagram shows that the light that travels and refracts through the lens near the center of the lens is less refracted than the light travelling near the edges of the lens. In other words, light that travels parallel to the principal axis do not converge at the same point, which then affects the resolution and the clarity of the image (the image is not
For instance in vacuum, the phase velocity of the numerical wave modes in the FDTD mesh can be different from vacuum speed of light. In fact the phase velocity of the numerical wave modes is a function of wavelength, the size of the cells and the direction of propagation. This numerical dispersion can carry to non-physical output such as dilatation of single-pulse waveforms, imprecise canceling of multiple scattered wave and pseudo refraction . It is described that to limit the amount of numerical dispersion, the size of each cell must be at least ten times smaller than the shortest wavelength that propagate on a space grid. Of course the numerical dispersion will be reduced even further if smaller cell size is used.