When a building experiences earthquake vibrations its foundation will move back and forth with the ground. These vibrations can be quite intense, creating stresses and deformation throughout the structure making the upper edges of the building swing from a few mm to many inches dependent on their height size and mass. This is uniformally applicable for buildings of all heights, whether single storeyed or multi-storeyed in high-risk earthquake zones. A building needs to be slightly flexible and also have components, which can withstand or counter the stresses caused in various parts of the building due to horizontal movements caused by earthquakes. In Mexico earthquake it was observed that buildings of different sizes and heights vibrated
According to M.M Ali and K.S Moon, for twenty storey building, rigid frame structural system is appropriate for resisting vertical loads as well as lateral loads. Figure.1 shows the perspective view of all building models that are considered for this study. Those buildings are given the name as L shape, V shape and T shape according to the geometric shape they have. Also the buildings with name P, Q and R are the Models in which relative study can be made about vertical geometric irregularity in a building. In these models more than one setback is being provided.
One of the most harmful problems that waves cause is earthquakes. Earthquakes injure and kill people, demolish structures, and cause destruction. Recently an earthquake in Ecuador killed 650 people and injured 2,500. A year ago in Nepal there was also a huge earthquake that killed over 8,580 people, one of the worst in history. (13/14) Earthquakes happen because of tectonic plate movement.
The built environment can impact physical movement designs from various perspectives. The built environment can be separated into a substantial number of classes. For the motivations behind this review, built environment has been isolated along two lines. In the first place, Transportation systems speak to the total consequence of interests in transportation infrastructure. Transportation frameworks incorporate the system of boulevards in a city, the outline of individual avenues and highways, isolated frameworks and transit systems for non-motorised clients.
Plate tectonics, the cause of many, many natural disasters and landforms. The shifting of tectonic plates can cause earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, mid-oceanic ridges, and oceanic trenches, depending on the direction the plates move. Though it seems they have such a large effect on Earth itself, the most affected thing being Earth’s organisms. These organisms have evolved to be able to live in these conditions, be it on top of mountains or deep below the surface of the ocean. These creatures, over hundreds of thousands of years, are able to change their DNA to adapt to their environment, which is an incredible thought.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General: Earthquake resistant design of RC buildings is a continuing area of research since the earthquake engineering has started not only in India but in other developed countries also. The buildings still damage due to some one or the other reason during earthquakes. In spite of all the weaknesses in the structure, either code imperfections or error in analysis and design, the structural configuration system has played a vital role in catastrophe. 1.2 Floating Column: A column is supposed to be a vertical member starting from foundation level and transferring the load to the ground. The term floating column is also a vertical element which ends (due to architectural design/ site situation) at its lower level (termination
Definition no.3: Power factor can also be defined as the cosine of the load angle. Load angle is defined as the tangent inverse of the ratio of the reactive part to resistive part of the load. II. CAUSES OF LOW POWER FACTOR 1. All the inductive loads such as single phase and three phase induction motors.
3.3.2 Factor causes damage to the structure Debris impact is created by the rapid flow of water carried with household items, vehicles, heavy items that hit on the houses. By studying the real condition through interview and information gathered from the local, we can understand that the weakest part of the existing structure is the exterior wall, kitchen and surrounding property due to the fact that these areas are usually built on the ground without being raised. However, after further investigate, this factor does not pertain to the higher level of the house from the ground with more stability and security during the deluge. This can be explained that most of the raised house that's constructed fully with timber are completely collapsed
There are many problems will be encountered during the construction stage of the building structural. Foundation is one of the problems that we will be faced. Foundation is the element of a structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground. The failure of a foundation can be included of cracked foundation and uneven foundation settlement. A cracked foundation is a sign that the building has a serious structural problem.