For example, roundup, an extremely common herbicide used in agriculture, is highly toxic to fish and amphibians. The National Coalition for Pesticide-Free Lawns says, "Of 30 commonly used lawn pesticides, 19 are linked with cancer or carcinogencity, 13 are linked with birth defects, 21 with reproductive effects, 26 with liver or kidney damage, 15 with neurotoxicity, and 11 with disruption of the endocrine
However, discharge of the brine produced by the RO desalination process results in many environmental adverse effects, due to the high concentrations of metals and salts. Recovery and removal of elements from RO brine would decrease environmental benefits and have economic gains in the production of valuable metals . Le Dirach et al.  are listed magnesium as element that potentially economically for extraction. 3) Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine and seawater is one of the main sources of lithium production.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1. Biogenic Amines: 2.1.1. Origin of biogenic amines: Pipek et al. (1992) recorded that biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They are present in low concentrations in human, animals and plants for regulating functions, acting on the nervous system.
Sulfur in the soil is generally in a sulphate form, and microbes change it to sulphide compounds that enter the soil solution and can be taken up by plant roots for growth. This image here shows the sulphur deficiency (left) and Sulphur filled plant
EC 3 are hydrolases, which forms two products from the substrate via hydrolysis. (Bach, et al. 1961) This is seen in the equation: L- Arginine + H2OL-Ornithine + Urea (Nelson and Cox 2008). The urea cycle is the procedure where ammonia is transformed into to urea. Throughout the urea cycle, the amino acid, arginine, is changes into ornithine- this is another amino acid when hydrated, that is when water was added.
Unlike mercury and lead, arsenic is a metalloid; and in some food source; like rice; the biggest problem. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogenic, it is highly abundant in nature with a mean availability of 5mg/kg soil within earth’s crust (Manvi Singh, 2013). One of the reason arsenic is abundant in the soil and water is because of mining of coal and other metals. Therefore arsenic contamination has a widespread reach, in regards to food consumption it not only contaminates sea-based food, but also land-based. Arsenic by soil and water contamination therefore can lead to a direct contamination in agricultural practices and provide health risks.
IDH is a cytosolic enzyme which occurs in three isoforms. The enzyme catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of Isocitrate producing alpha-ketoglutaric acid and carbon dioxide. This step of citric acid cycle is an irreversible step and hence it is carefully regulated to avoid unnecessary depletion of isocitrate. Specific mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 have been found in many cancer cells such as gliomal cancers, astrocytomas and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). These mutations produce (D)-2- hydroxyglutarate from alpha-ketoglutarate.
Cancer prevention Fennel is loaded with its own share of antioxidants and phytonutrients. Studies show that the Fennel seed extract can inhibit growth of tumor. It’s probably because of its flavonoid and alkaloid concentration. These chemicals present in fennel can fight the free radicals roaming in our blood, which are supposedly responsible cancer. 5.
Due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzyme, blood concentration of terfenadine increases which leads to prolonged QT intervals and following cardiac arrhythmias. This was one of the main reasons for withdrawal of terfenadine from the market in 1998. Grapefruits showed significant CYPs mediated interaction with several drugs (specifically CYP3A4 substrates) (Wanwimolruk et. al., 2014). St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.; family Clusiaceae) is a popular medicinal herb, widely used for the treatment of depression and anxiety.
INTRODUCTION : Phenylketoneuria also designated as PKU is defined as an inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). This is a rare genetic condition in which occurs inability to metabolise or break down the essential amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine due to enzyme deficiency. Amino acids are considered as the building blocks of protein and so does this amino acid i.e. phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid and hence, finds a role in protein synthesis in our body.
The mechanism of action is as follows: Initially, given that it is a pro drug, it should be activated by the mycobacterium catalase peroxidase enzyme, which is regulated by the kat G gene. Then it enters tuberculosis bacilli by active diffusion. After activation by kat G, isoniazid converted to a wide range of radicals or reactive species and isotonic acids which can include both inactive oxygen species and radical species organic radicals. These radicals and species role is to attack multiple targets include: mycolic acid Synthesis, damage to DNA, lipid peroxidation and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism in the cell. It is also responsible for the bactericidal activity of isoniazid.