A study compared risk factors for borderline personality disorder with those for bipolar disorder. The experiment connected mania with sensitivity to reward, while BPD was found to relate more strongly to impulsivity and threat sensitivity (Fulford, Eisner, & Johnson, 2015). Among individuals receiving residential treatment for substance use, emotional abuse, emotional instability and vulnerability, and impulsivity were found to be unique predictors of BPD status (Bornovalova et al., 2006). The effect of anger rumination on the development and exacerbation of BPD symptoms possibly warrants research; one study examined whether childhood precursors and BPD symptom severity could be connected through tendency toward anger rumination. This study found a significant effect of anger rumination in the relationship between BPD symptom severity and self-reported childhood emotional vulnerability (Sauer-Zavala, Geiger, & Baer, 2013).
The grandiose narcissist copes with difficulties in self-esteem by viewing themselves as superior and unique and by engaging in grandiose fantasies. Narcissists are very exploitative, entitled, envious, aggressive, especially when they are distressed. As related to borderline, Narcissistic Personality disorder is strongly associated with a history of childhood adversity, including physical abuse and neglect, and with having a parent who was abused or had a previous mental problem. The potential forms of treatments of disorders will be directed to cognitive and psychodynamic approaches. Cognitive therapies have found means to help clients identify and challenge their negative thoughts and dysfunctional belief symptoms.
Then they filled out a Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, which assess the participants lever of stress, anxiety and depression. For the Memory measure section, the participants were given a questionnaire that were structured in the form of a cross-examination style questions. The study showed that when the participant frequently recalled the event both lead to an increase in accuracy and a likelihood of developing false memories. And avoidance of the event had lead to a decrease in memory. This research suggests that some PTSD symptoms can help memory recall and others can prevent it (Gittins, Paterson, and Sharpe, 2006, p. 25).
This is a trait theory to explain personality. Each dimension of this model is important but I think that neuroticism is the main factor in bipolar. But I believe that each factor can affect the mental state of an individual. People who are high in neuroticism prone to be emotionally unstable. They tend to have difficulty maintaining social relationships, and have problems learning.
This assessment tool gives a general social evaluation to advance socially capable determination and care (Jarvis, pg.24). It is important when making a psychiatric diagnosis to be aware of the cultural implications and what is considered normal so that culturally unsanctioned behaviors can be differentiated. This is especially true when a clinician is making a diagnosis of personality disorder. However, it appears that certain groups of the population are at a greater risk than others for certain PDs. In general, other risk factors include being Native American or African American, being a young adult, having low socioeconomic status, and being divorced, separated,
Cognitive models of psychosis have emphasised the role of ‘thought content’ and ‘thinking styles’ in the progression and maintenance of psychotic experiences (Morrison, Haddock & Tarrier, 1995; Morrison, 2001; Garety, Kuipers, Fowler, Freeman & Bebbington, 2001), these cognitive processes have been likened to those of depression and anxiety. Fundamentally, these ideas have emphasised how delusions and hallucinations can occur when atypical experiences that are shared with the majority of the people, are potentially perceived in a way that has great and intimidating personal importance (Tai & Turkington,
Interpersonal Tornadoes Personality is commonly thought of to be a set of traits, distinctive behaviors, and patterns that make up a person 's character. What happens when a person’s personality does not fit the usual model or criteria to make them “normal”? They may have a personality disorder. A 2007 study found that roughly 9.1% of Americans suffer from some kind of personality disorder. Because personality disorders are deeply ingrained in early adolescence, they can cause long term difficulties for close relationships which poses a potential problem for performing traditional functions in society.
Diagnostic impressions: Jim’s profile pattern appears to meet the diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorders. More specifically further assessment is warranted to also rule out, bipolar disorder, histrionic personality disorder and possible substance abuse disorders especially considering the significantly unreported use of his historical and/or current drug and/or alcohol use. Research has suggested that individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for borderline personality may have been victims of some sort of physical or sexual abuse therefore further inquiry is necessary. Additionally based on his profile a pattern of antisocial behavior was probably first evident in adolescents and it is also not uncommon for individuals to have had features of conduct disorder in adolescents, however, this should be assessed with caution based on his military experience therefore, further
There is a basic model that helps create a prognosis on possible substance abuse disorders. This goes from exposure of the substance use, to substance dependence. The basic premise is that cultural and psychological influences the beginning use of substances. As psychological stressors are associated with the substance, then it leads to substance abuse. The biological and psychological influences will lead to substance dependence.