Imagery And Self-Efficacy

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Playing with confidence: The relationship between imagery use and self-confidence and self-efficacy in youth soccer players, Journal of sports science, December 2008
The definition of imagery is “an experience that mimics real experiences” (White & hardy, 1998, p. 389). Imagery is a topic that has been immensely researched predominately with elite sports stars. Most of this imagery research has been conducted on adults but there have been only a small number of studies based on youth athletes. According to recent research carried out on 7-14 year olds by Munroe-Chandler, Hall, Fishburne and Strachan (2007) and Munroe-Chandler, Hall, Fishburne, O and Hall (2007), these athletes have reported that using imagery does make a difference.
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The scientists decided to use Paivios analytic framework as they felt it would best suit the participants. The model results in there being 5 different outcomes, Cognitive General (CG), Cognitive Specific (CS), Motivational Specific (MS) Motivational General Mastery (MG-M) and Motivational General Arousal (MG-A). The scientists found that there were two cognitions that can be derived from the model, self-confidence and self-efficacy. After further research they found that self-confidence and self-efficacy were actually very different from each other. They found that self-confidence was seen in the participants that rated their own ability at soccer was superior to the rest. Self-efficacy on the other hand was seen in the participants that were extremely confident in their ability to do a specific task with in the game, ex. A pass or a shot. Martin et al suggested that “imagery can serve multiple functions and the imagery employed should match the intended outcomes”, with further research into the topic the researchers found the link between imagery and the outcomes which in turn increases…show more content…
(2009), The sports imagery questionnaire for children (SIQ-C), Measurement in physical education and exercise science.

Martin, K.A., Moritz, S.E., Hall, C.R. (1999), Imagery use in sports: a literature review and applied model, the sport psychologist journal, volume 13, p245-268.
Munroe-Chandler, K.J., Giacobbi, P.R., Hall, C., Weinberg, R. (2000), the four W’s of imagery use: where, when, why and what, the sports psychologist journal, volume14, p119-137.
Munroe-Chandler, K.J., Hall, C., Fishburne, G., Strachan, L. (2007), where, when and why athletes use imagery: an examination of developmental differences, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, volume 78, Issue 2, p103-116.
Munroe-Chandler, K.J., Hall, C., Fishburne, G., O, J., Hall, N. (2007), the content of young athletes’ imagery use: a developmental perspective, international journal of sport and exercise psychology journal, volume 5, issue 2, p158-174.
Stadulis, R. E., MacCraken, M.J., Edison, T.A., Severance, C. (2002), a children’s form of the competitive state anxiety inventory: the CSAI-2C, measurements in physical education and exercise science journal, volume 6, issue 3,
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