The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
Situation Analysis The primary objective of educational institutions is students’ learning, and learning requires using such processes as planning, application of knowledge, monitoring, regulation and reflection (Azevedo, 2009). Aristotle pointed out that the mind uses a different power above and beyond seeing and hearing, thus, laid the foundations for thinking about metacognition (Sandi-Ureña, 2008). Metacognitive skills appear to be highly independent. By means of thorough task orientation, a metacognitively skilled student is likely to focus on relevant information given in the task assignment, necessary for building an adequate task representation. A detailed action plan can be designed.
The theory perceives the learner as an active agent. In order to define students’ learning process as self-regulated, they have to use specific strategies for attaining their goals and their learning behaviour based on their self-efficacy perception (Zimmerman,
They plan everything out from the very beginning to the very end. Furthermore, this can be described as a method or a process. The process starts with initiation, planning evaluating and completing all tasks. Basically, the learner plans every step. Many adult learners have to have this harmony in order to achieve learning.
First the quality of learner`s work is taken into consideration because it involves the teacher`s “deliberate, sustained and explicit reflection” and second the resulting data are used to formulate learning goals. Taken this definition into account, different purposes for this kind of assessment can be envisaged. These purposes range from providing information to outside agencies, satisfying
Constructivism "is the philosophy, or belief, that learners create their own knowledge based on interactions with their environment including their interactions with other people" (Draper, 2002 : 522). Constructivists understand learning as an interpretive, recursive, building process by active learners interrelating with the physical and social world (Fosnot, 1996). The term constructivism most probably is derived from Piaget’s reference to his views as “constructivist” (Gruber & Voneche, 1977), as well as from Bruner (1966)’s description of discovery learning as “constructionist”. 2.1.1 Principles of Constructivism First, knowledge is constructed, discovered, and transformed by students. Faculty create the conditions within which students
• Critical thinking- Determines the value of something. • Inductive thinking-It moves from parts to the whole from example to generalizations. • Deductive thinking Moves from the whole to its part from generalization to examples. Characteristics of Authentic instruction. Types of approach to teaching and learning including authentic instruction, engaged learning and learning by design and learner centred instruction.
. Problem-Solving: It is an instrumental technique where teachers and students attempt in a conscious planned and purpose full effort to arrive at some solution. (Aggarawal, 1996) Problem solving focuses on activities that are relevant and useful to the life of the learners than just learning by memorizing of facts. That may have no connection with their life. According to, Lue (2000), problem based learning is derived from the conviction that the learner is an active and creative with the will and ability to seek individual knowledge and solve development.
As Nunan says: ‘learners who have reached a point where they are able to define their own goals and create their own learning opportunities have, by definition, become autonomous’ (1999, 145). Goal setting helps learners focus on their study. Learners may have one or two overall goals, but may also choose to set themselves more manageable weekly goals which will help them achieve their more general goals. Moreover, learners should be encouraged to view the course as one element in achieving their own goals, and to seek out additional support or opportunities for practice, if needed. In addition, having clear goals allows learners to focus on those aspects of the class that is most relevant to