Self Efficacy And Social Cognitive Theory

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“They are able who think they are able.” Virgil
The concept of self-efficacy is an important construct in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986). The theory holds that self-referent thought mediates between knowledge and action, and consequently individuals evaluate their own experiences and thought processes through self-reflection. The process of self-reflection includes a focus on our beliefs about self, which in turn includes an evaluation of the extent to which we exercise control over our self. It is an evaluation of our control over our beliefs, values, attitudes, environment and behavior (Bandura, 1977, 1997). The focus on self in the sense of personal agency can be regarded as perceived self-efficacy (Bandura 1977, 1997)
In social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), people are seen as self organizing, proactive and self-regulating, rather than reactive and governed by external events. Self-regulation concerns how students regulate aspects of their thinking, motivation and behaviour during learning (Pintrich & Zusho, 2002). Self-regulated learners set goals for their learning and regulate and control their cognition and motivation and adopt strategies to achieve their learning goals. The best conditions for promoting internal motivation and perception of self-efficacy, and for encouraging students to employ self regulatory strategies, are created when individuals’ perceived controllability is enhanced (Bandura & Wood, 1989) and when they are granted large
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