The implicit belief in the malleability of values might weaken the role of values as guiding principles in people's life. Personal values Personal values serve as guiding principles in people's lives. They reflect what people consider important in their lives (e.g., security, self-direction) across context and time.
Elliot & McGregor (2001) has established that mastery avoidance and performance avoidance goals are associated with the ‘fear of failure’. Since a ‘fear of losing out’ and ‘fear of failure’ are conceptually similar, there could possibly be a positive relationship between them. Performance approach goals involve the attainment of competency relative to others. With a performance goal orientation, there is a concern with being judged able, and one shows evidence of ability by being successful, by outperforming others (Ames & Archer, 1988). As the results obtained are more tangible, this spirit of competition and excessive ambition may serve as a stronger impetus for students to resort to more extreme means by adopting kiasu-negative tactics, in order to derive a greater sense of satisfaction after claiming victory over their
Other definitions would include that self-esteem acts like an insulator against stress  or it could refer to how we feel about ourselves and this could either be positive (high self-esteem) and negative (low self-esteem). Several factors can affect self-esteem such as satisfaction in our various relationships, performances, and appearance . It was found out that high self-esteem could be a factor for a healthy life, which is associated with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is to be inter-correlated with emotional maturity where an individual is able to respond to uncertainties and varying environments in the most appropriate way . However, people with low self-esteem usually rely on their present situation to determine their current feeling or outlook in their selves.
Identify a possible reaction an individual might exhibit from a reinforcing perspective. Support your reasoning. Each individual react differently from reinforcement depending on the approaches management used. There are four approaches to reinforcement theory; they are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Reinforcement “increases the frequency of desired behavior while Punishment “decreases the frequency of undesirable behavior.”
Self-monitoring is how a person adapts or does not adapt to social situations based on how they want to be seen in society (Lecture Ch. 3, p. 6). A person can be categorized as being high in self-monitoring or low; or they could be a mix of both. Someone that would be considered high in self-monitoring would be one that adjusts their behavior based on the situation they are in (Lecture Ch. 3, p. 7). Their goal is to greater themselves through self-enhancement (Lecture Ch.
Audience’s feeling and attitude is so fundamental in bolstering one organization. Hopes of an organization in reducing the offensiveness increased whenever it tries to bolster up by the audience’s positive perception. A second possibility is to try to minimize the negative feelings associated with the wrongful act (Benoit, 1997). The organization is able to reduce the offensiveness to the lowest possible level or prevent it from increasing beyond the level if it can minimize the risk of an unpleasant situation and make it seems less significant than it really is. Third, a firm can employ differentiation, in which the act is distinguished from other similar but more offensive actions (Benoit, 1997).
The reason for this is because this individuals “may become distressed with rational dependence’’. At difference to those who have less problem committing to a relationship, and are highly invested like individuals with anxious attachment or secure attachment. As a result, they found that when individuals are less emotionally invested, certain relationship issues may arise, such as “Commitment”. This is described by Arriaga as the scent of the relationship that maintains the couple unity secure so they can be able to surpass any adversity(Coy & Miller, 2014, p.234). If commitment becomes less important in the relationship, this may altered the couple’s happiness, and changing the relationship direction.
Among the smaller group of studies that try to explore both negative and positive aspects of perfectionism, results have produced valuable data that significantly separate perfectionists across intrapersonal indicators such as life satisfaction, depression, and well-being (Gilman & Ashby, 2003a; Parker, 1997; Stoeber&Rambow, 2007). The notion that perfectionism can actuallylead to healthy functioning and positive outcomes encourages researchers to further peer into its impact and potential value on academic functioning. This knowledge may serve to guide future researchers and practitioners on methods in which tospot and avoid maladaptive aspects of perfectionism while enhancing its productive qualities. This is particularly poignant if striving for perfection can count as a facet of the healthy pursuit of excellence (Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn,
As supported in the study of Boe and Ponder (1981), blood donors exposed to positive norms are more likely to have intrinsic motivation and also scored high on altruism scales. Individuals are able to find themselves become altruistic if they see other people being altruistic too (Spector & Klein, 2006). However, it is easily argued that if one were to be altruistic based on other people’s action, then that will be considered egoistic because we are simply doing what others are doing. But considering the fact that behaviors can be modified based on modeling, as mentioned above, therefore it is not egoistic. For example, Mary sees Jack helping others altruistically, Mary’s behavior will slowly become altruistic because she watched and learned from Jack.
According to this viewpoint, it is important to analyze how people perceive themselves to be viewed by significant others, such as peers, classmates, relatives, and so on. Some modern theories of self-esteem have focused on the norms and values of the cultures and communities in which people are raised. For instance, Crocker and her colleagues have argued that some people experience collective self-esteem because they are especially likely to base their self esteem on their social identities as relating to specific groups (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992). Leary, Tambor, Terdal, and Downs (1995) have stated a distinct and significant social account of self-esteem. Socio meter theory begins with the hypothesis that humans have as