In this present chapter of this research paper, it will be described and analyzed the theoretical elements of this research focus as they follow: Motivation, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation , motivation to learn and intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation. What is Motivation? Motivation is described as the processes that arouse a particular desire to research a behavior, continue to allow a behavior to persit, or simply lead to choosing a preferring a particualr behavior as stated by Woldokowski (1986). In terms related to education, Crump (1995) describe it as kindling the student's mind to aprhend an instruction. From her researches we can point out that she found that excitement, interest and enthusiasm concerning learning
And so I further consider the approaches of choice theory from Glasser (1988) as it draws from both humanist tradition and cognitive theory (Porter, 2000). Glasser asserts that behaviour is determined by the student’s choice, not teacher control (1988). Under choice theory there is potential to influence and create quality teaching and learning experiences through focusing on the students’ needs and the teacher’s ability to practice positive relationship habits such as caring, befriending, trusting and supporting (Glasser, 1998). It is an encouraging approach to call upon in the future as it reminds the teacher to consider their own behaviour first, before responding to the
Outline the key principles and educational applications of Operant Conditioning. Refer to relevant literature and applications to the post-primary classroom. Operant conditioning is a process of learning that occurs through the enforcement of rewards and punishments for behaviour. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour. When a positive reinforcement is received by students in response to their behaviour, they are likely to repeat this behaviour.
321-322). The many benefits of peer review have been discussed in literature. Liu and Hansen (2002) have expressed that the implementation of peer feedback meshes well with four theoretical bases: the process approach, collaborative learning, Vygotskian learning theory and interactionist theory of L2 acquisition. Moreover, positive empirical findings regarding its benefits have been documented in research articles. Peer feedback has been reported to help the learners develop a genuine sense of audience (Mendonca and Johnson, 1994; Mittan, 1989), promote self-reflection on both student-writer and student-reviewer (Mittan, 1989; Rollinson, 2005), and generate feedback that is quicker in ‘turnover time’ (Rollinson, 2005).
Cognitive Developmental Perspective : A fundamental assumption of the cognitive development perspective driven by theories is that reciprocal interaction among children around suitable academic tasks creates growth in the knowledge of concepts and critical skills (Slavin, 2011). Vygotsky’s notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is meaningful to learning. Such learning happens through interaction with each other in the ZPD. Vygotsky (1978) defines the ZPD as the distance between the actual developmental level as determined
MOTIVATION Motivation According to Ormrod (2014) defined motivation is something that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; it gets students moving, points them in a particular direction, and keeps them going. Motivation influences the way people perceive their learning environments, and it influence how much one could learn, as well as the amount of effort and sacrifice one is willing to invest in learning (McCombs & Whisler, 1997). According to McCown & Tohnson (1991) stated behavior is affected by numerous sources, where the perceived environment influence the attitudes such as, beliefs, feelings and behavioral intention of person. Intrinsic mean the psychological need, about our personal, causation, reflectance and curiosity Reeve (1992). Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an
Positive reinforcement may happen in the form of behavior compliment, personalized reward systems, edibles or positive adult attention (Lalli, et al., 1999). Defining the exact appearances and components of positive reinforcement for a student needs knowledge of student likings and attitudes. The most common way to determine student likings for positive reinforcement can be through a structured interview of student likes and dislikes. According to Alberto and Troutman (2012), positive reinforcement happens when the importance of a definite behavior increases the behavior across time. Many people connect the terms positive reinforcement and praise.
Mather and Goldstein (2015) stated that behaviors can retained or changed with appropriate outcome. Teachers can use the procedure defined by them to accomplish students’ behavior using the following outcomes. The very first step is to describe the problem. The second step is to adjust the behavior by implementing a behavior management strategy. The third step is to recognize an effective reinforcement and the last step is to use the reinforcement on a regular basis in order to change the behavior.
The students are provided with a mediated learning experience in this approach. In this way, depending on the needs of the students, instruction as an assistance is presented to them. This assessment procedure causes the students to improve and find a better way. Accordingly, dynamic assessment offers development by providing the interaction opportunities and internalization of them. There are two approaches to dynamic assessment (Lantolf and Poehner, 2004).
According to leading educational authorities on brain-based learning, Caine & Caine (2010), brain-based learning involved both conscious and unconscious state. In support to this, Sousa (2006) included reflection and relaxed alertness to the concept brain-based learning. According to Caine and Caine, (2010) relaxed alertness is a state of being that promotes learning. It also believes that the search for meaning occurs through patterning and emotions are critical to patterning; (Caine & Caine, 2010). Wolfe (2009) and (Nunley, 2003) stressed that Brain-based integrates movement in the classroom plus varied instruction of lessons to motivate student alertness and anticipation (Woolfolk,
It was hypothesized that students’ perceptions and preferences correspond to their individual goal preferences and other motivational beliefs (Tapola, 2008; Markku, 2008). The results reflected a motivational mindset that the students bring with them to the classroom. “Students with different motivational profiles differed not only in their experiences of, but also in their preferences for the learning environment.” (Tapola, 2008; Markku, 2008). This
Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5). In the assumption of learning theory we are making assumptions about learning from different perspectives. From an educator’s perspective, we have made assumptions about the needs and readiness of learners, and assumed that there are best teaching and learning strategies for particular learners under particular learning context. Experiments and research have been conducted to validate the findings. From a learner’s perspective, the learners have assumed that they would be able to achieve the learning goals based on certain learning strategies, that suit their particular learning styles, and under