(Vygotsky, 1978 : 86). Within the general cognitive heading, the cognitive developmentalists attribute these effects to processes outlined by scholars such as Piaget (1926) and Vygotsky (1978). Vygotsky’s (1978) work stressed benefits of collaborating with a more expert peer because what a student carries out jointly with another could be incorporated into his or her individual repertoire. Piaget’s work stressed the benefits of cognitive conflicts among students that expose students’ misconceptions and lead to higher-quality understandings. Work from the cognitive elaboration perspectives asserts that learners must engage in some manner of cognitive restructuring of new materials in order to learn them.
Constructivism "is the philosophy, or belief, that learners create their own knowledge based on interactions with their environment including their interactions with other people" (Draper, 2002 : 522). Constructivists understand learning as an interpretive, recursive, building process by active learners interrelating with the physical and social world (Fosnot, 1996). The term constructivism most probably is derived from Piaget’s reference to his views as “constructivist” (Gruber & Voneche, 1977), as well as from Bruner (1966)’s description of discovery learning as “constructionist”. 2.1.1 Principles of Constructivism First, knowledge is constructed, discovered, and transformed by students. Faculty create the conditions within which students
Situation Analysis The primary objective of educational institutions is students’ learning, and learning requires using such processes as planning, application of knowledge, monitoring, regulation and reflection (Azevedo, 2009). Aristotle pointed out that the mind uses a different power above and beyond seeing and hearing, thus, laid the foundations for thinking about metacognition (Sandi-Ureña, 2008). Metacognitive skills appear to be highly independent. By means of thorough task orientation, a metacognitively skilled student is likely to focus on relevant information given in the task assignment, necessary for building an adequate task representation. A detailed action plan can be designed.
The CAPS aims to establish knowledge and skills, that learners acquire, that are meaningful. Constructivism supports that learners should be dependent on learning from meaningful sources because it will ensure their proficiency with certain knowledge (2016:61). The CAPS promotes a procedure of learning that is active as well as critical. Constructivism states that learning should be an active process where the self-determination of learners is motivated and the purpose of the learners taken into account (2016:33). The CAPS strives towards a classroom environment where learners are able to work as individuals as well as part of a team.
Flippen (2012), explained that cognitivism focuses on mind and especially mental process. With the opening of human mind thinking, knowing, recollection and solution of problem which is deemed valuable for learning. With educational technology is the best way for a teacher to using cognitivism in the classroom. Application of Theory: Herring (2012), discussed that cognitive learning theory had been center on human thought process. In this theory learning take place when new knowledge obtained or previous knowledge is modified.
Bhargava and Pathy (2011) stated that education in holistic approach will serve many purposes. It will empower a person to broaden his family and society. Through holistic education, it will ignite individual with the responsibility of developing and maintaining a just socioeconomic system, conserving and transmitting human heritage, take up a sensible and sensitive approach towards utilization of resources. Therefore, a teacher serves as the prime mover of the educational system while learner as the key participants in the learning process. Manlongat (2010) added that the teacher is the main facilitator of education.
Likewise, Brown (2004) states “assessment is an integral part of teaching-learning cycle” (p. 16). There are a number of reasons for assessment the knowledge of which would provide insights into the way teachers employ given methods which are appropriate for their pedagogic purposes. Race, Brown, and Smith (2004) suggest the most common reasons for assessing students. They remark that assessment provides students with constructive feedback, thereby resulting in their improvement. It also raises learners’ awareness about their current abilities and achievements.
The theory perceives the learner as an active agent. In order to define students’ learning process as self-regulated, they have to use specific strategies for attaining their goals and their learning behaviour based on their self-efficacy perception (Zimmerman,
How people process and store data is essential during the time spent learning. Blueprint - An inner learning structure. New data is contrasted with existing psychological structures. Construction might be consolidated, stretched out or adjusted to suit new data. The information frameworks of psychological structures are effectively developed by learners in view of previous subjective structures on account of learning dynamic digestion and convenience of new data to existing intellectual structures however in the event of inspiring learners to set their own particular objectives and propel themselves to learn.
The knowledge that has already instilled to the student and the capacity of the student to have long term memory will be a determinant on the understanding of the student and what the student learned from the given instruction. Prior knowledge is activated by giving the students triggers that could stimulate the ideas of the student and the student will know how to analyze & integrate the information that has been presented. Knowledge is already designed; meaning availability of knowledge is based on how it is systematized in the memory. Instructional activities helps the students to develop and store the knowledge they have gained in this way it can be easily retrieved when needed in the future. Attaining lifelong learning is really helpful to the students especially in this modern society.