Self-Transcendence Theory In Nursing

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The theory of self-transcendence is a middle-range nursing theory which was developed by Pamela Reed (Cramer, 2013; Smith & Liehr, 2008). Self-transcendence theory establishes a framework for healthcare providers through the promotion of well-being during life-altering events (Reed, 2008). In addition, this theory provides a holistic framework for nursing care focused on the relationship between persons and their environment (Reed, 2014). This can be achieved by creating self-transcendence activities that promote improved well-being through a broadening of personal boundaries (Reed, 2003). As a result, this facilitates the general public 's acceptance of grieving and loss while enhancing the individual 's self-awareness, resulting in…show more content…
Paradigmatic Origins
The original purpose of the theory of self-transcendence was to enhance knowledge about what contributes to well-being in later adulthood, but it is now a theory used for individuals at any age, and at all health/illness levels, to include adolescents and young adults (Ellermann & Reed, 2001). The theory of self-transcendence provides concepts that focus on client development and nursing interventions, which promote the client’s ability to experience self-transcendence and thus improved well-being (Smith & Liehr, 2014).
Reed (2014) described self-transcendence as an inherent process that was a gradual, non-linear expansion of conceptual boundaries, i.e., one’s personal limits or internal rules and expectations of oneself, others, and the world. Transcendence is considered integral to caring and healing through the relationship between the nurse and patient (Reed, 1996). Individuals who face human vulnerability or mortality obtain an increased capacity for self-transcendence and its positive influence on well-being (Reed,
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Self-transcendence is an example of Reed’s (1997) nursing process, which is a self-organizing process inherent among human systems that is also related to well-being. Self-transcendence theory originated in part from Reed’s knowledge of the basic developmental nature of human beings and its relevance to well-being, and in her belief that nursing is not only a human science, but a developmental science. She believes that nursing should address the inner capacity of human beings for health, well-being, and continued development (Reed, 2008). The purposes and major concepts of self-transcendence theory are considered to be a characteristic of developmental maturity where there is an expansion of self-boundaries and orientation toward broadening life perspectives and purposes (Reed, 1991). Self-transcendence theory propels the individual beyond the immediate or constricted view of self and the world (Reed,
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