Social Cognitive Theory and Self-efficacy Social cognitive theory studies the human capacity to “ exercise control over the nature and quality of one’s quality life” Bandura (2001), as quoted by Swackhamer (2009). This human agency or exercise of control allows individuals to make things happen through intentional actions. As Bandura (2001)described human agency as being guided through four cognitive channels: self-regulation, self-reflectiveness, intentionality, and forethought. Self-regulation is the ability of a person to observe the preferred choice of action through goal setting and motivation. On the other hand, self-reflection refers to the evaluation of the person’s motivation, values, and the importance of the chosen action.
Therefore, my questions are; “How does the information broadcast affects our self-esteem?” “How does it affect our cognition?” and “How does it affect social movement?” The media and self-esteem Self-esteem is defined as one personal self-assessment, it is the valve and worth in which a person has for his or her self. According to (Braden, 1969), there are three key components of self-esteem: 1. Self-esteem is an essential human need that is vital for survival and normal, healthy development. 2. Self-esteem arises automatically from within based upon a person's beliefs and consciousness.
Bateman and Fonagy (2004) later defined Mentalization as “the mental process by which an individual implicitly and explicitly interprets the actions of himself and others as meaningful on the basis of intentional mental states such as personal desires, needs, feelings, beliefs and reasons” (Bateman & Fonagy, 2009). To effectively “mentalize”, one must imagine the thoughts and feelings of others; hence, mentalization is a mental process. Quality of mentalization is superior when one is genuinely aware that it is not possible to know what is in someone else’s mind (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004). Based on the content and process of mentalizing, Bateman and Fonagy (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004) categorized mentalization into three dimensions: firstly, two modes of functioning (i.e., implicit and explicit), secondly, two objects (i.e., self and other), and
First, self-concept maintenance is related to individualism collectivism. (Triandis, 1989) has been related to widely varying psychological process, such as motivations for uniqueness. Next, self-identity theory was design to illuminate the nature and origins of self-knowledge, especially the reactions of others and the roles people play. This theory assumes by observing how we fit into social relationship and how others react to us (Mead
He critically observes the human behavior and personality. He figures out the authoritative and dominating factors that shape the person 's personality, thinking, cognition and motivational processes. According to Mulhollem,"Bandura simply observing the others and incorporating this concept into his theory". Social cognitive theory is a crust of the psychosocial, cognitive and behavior processing. This theory clearly asserts the humanistic elements such as individuality, contemplative self-awareness and cogitative reaction.
Beginning with the question, how to understand the concept of ‘Identity’, the first thing we need to understand is that, at an individual level, the formation of identity involves a number of factors including the fact that how we see ourselves and how the world interprets us. When it comes to the formation of identity, we have to think in terms of such formation at the level of self and its implications at social level are ignored. If we look at Erving Goffman’s work on the question of formation of identity, he talks about identity in link with the self and the society. To him, identity relies on our own consciousness and on active presentation of self, along with the notion of thoughts about which we are not conscious, i.e. the unintentional
This study will use the Self Determination Theory as its fundamental theoretical framework. The theoretical framework in use is defined as a formal theory which strongly emphasizes intrinsic and extrinsic forms of motivation in terms of the vital role they play in cognitive construction and social development within individuals. Based on literature gathered from Buitendach (2011) intrinsic motivation refers to doing an activity for its own sake. Thus, one goes into a particular activity to enjoy it or merely just for self-fulfilment purposes (p.4). Whereas in contrast, according to Meyer and Gagner (2008), extrinsic motivation of the self-determination theory refers to engaging in an activity for instrumental reasons , thus extrinsic motivators are viewed to be made up of two cornerstones namely external regulations which are seen to be actions that are performed with the expectation of receiving a reward or avoiding punishment , the second cornerstone is integration which is defined as form of expressing one’s state (as cited in Buitendach , 2011, p.4).
Introduction The aim of this paper is to integrate the philosophical and practical assumptions of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic and the person-centered school. Taking the psychodynamic approach as the core theoretical orientation, the propositions of other schools of psychotherapy may be integrated to formulate client problem as well as inform treatment. This paper will begin with outlining the key philosophies of the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic and person-centered approach, followed by their points of contact and opposition as well as their strengths and weakness. Secondly, an integrated framework may be briefly explained. I will continue the discussion with my personal stance relating to the therapies.
Thus your ideas of self develop through time because we are constantly comparing ourselves to others. Festinger goes on to say that self comparison takes place because people have the need for self-evaluation and they evaluate themselves by comparing their appearance and abilities with these of other people. (). Social comparison can be defined as “comparative judgments of social stimuli on particular content dimensions” (). Thus by comparing ourselves to other we re-evaluate our own identity and ultimately achieve affirmation.
Authors Pompeo and Levitt (2014) define self-reflection as the conscious decision that which an individual acknowledges and evaluates their actions. Thus, these said actions could include being forthcoming about the intentions and motives that are considered personal benefits. In addition, the center of self-reflection consists of the individual’s emotions, thoughts, and feelings. Universally goals that counselors should incorporate in conjunction with adhering to self-reflection include conscious awareness, thoughts, and feelings (Pompeo & Levitt, 2014). Both self-reflection and self-awareness are routine developments that are utilized to assist counselors with becoming proficient in cultural practices.
My frame of reference affects my identity of who I am. It also affects my values, perceptions, goals, and what’s important to me. What’s my core value? What’s my mission in life? “These are all subjects related to what psychologists call identity” (Eccles, 2009).