Introduction. Halliday’s theory of systematic functional linguistics depicts language as a social phenomenon which is concerned with text, structure, function and meaning which views language as system of making meaning. Systematic functional linguistics underlines three concepts namely, subject, actor and theme in a clause. Here the subject is what concerns the message, the actor is who does the action and the theme is the point of departure of a text. A text exists in line with these three elements of grammar.
Formed with two words: Systematic and Function, SFG make sense of meaning in language usage. Subject, Actor and Theme are essential to the construction of a clause. The subject plays an important role in a clause. Divided in three parts, psychological, grammatical and logical subject, each function is important to one another to make sense of the clause. Depending on the clause, it then evaluates to be called, Subject, Actor and Theme.
Reference is the specific nature of the information that is signaled for retrieval. Based on the place of reference, the interpretation of reference can be divided into endophora (textual) and exophoric (situational) reference (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 33). When the interpretation of a reference lies within the boundaries of text, it is called endophoric relation. This relation forms cohesive ties within the text. There are two kinds of endophoric relations: anaphora and cataphora (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 17).
First, he/she identifies the specific contents or topics of a specific discourse. Then, he/she investigates the discursive strategies. After that, he/she examines linguistic means (as types) and the specific, context-dependent linguistic realizations (as
So the making of a constituent reflects that speakers are trying to characterise their knowledge of syntactic structure. What happens then is that constituents are assigned to different categories that make up the overarching category of Sentence (S). It then breaks down into a Noun Phrase (NP) followed by a Verb Phrase (VP), and so on. Linguists can illustrate this by using a tree diagram that has been labelled with syntactic category information. According to Fromkin (2013), a tree diagram is “a formal device that reflects the speaker’s intuitions about the natural groupings of words in a sentence.”
2. Review of literature This section concisely sheds light on related literature concerning semantic prosody and cuprous-based studies of semantic prosody and semantic features. Along with the Implication of Semantic Prosody in Translation, followed by the significance of the proposed study and the research methodology and data. 2.1. Semantic Prosody The term semantic prosody, also known as semantic harmony (LewandowskaTomaszczyk, 1996), discourse or pragmatic prosody (Stubbs, 2001), or semantic relationships (Hoey, 2003; Nelson, 2006), was initially developed by Sinclair (1987) who had taken the idea from Firth’s (1957) concept of phonological prosody. Louw (1993) was the one who initially presented the term semantic prosody, and then it was used extensively by Hunston (2002, 2007), Partington (1998, 2004), Stubbs (1995, 2001), Tognini-Bonelli (2001), and Tribble (2000), etc.
Then, it discusses how metaphor can be stimulation for semantic change and when a metaphor becomes fixed, it is called a type of semantic change. Further, the essay discusses the relationship between polysemy and metaphor. Relation of Polysemy with Semantic Change Polysemy is a condition for semantic change. Polysemy is the phenomenon whereby a linguistic unit exhibits multiple distinct yet related meanings (Evans and
The system is has two main elements, mood and residue. However, in this paper, only transitivity will be analyzed and will be explained more in detail. Conventionally, transitivity is normally understood as the grammatical feature which specifies if a verb takes a direct object. We describe a verb as transitive if it takes a direct object and intransitive if it does not. An extension of this concept is the ditransitive verb, which takes both a direct and an indirect object.
What is phonotactics? Phonotactics is a branch of phonology of a language that works with limits in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. This branch allows us to know the sequence of sounds. Phonotactics produces a limit in the possible sound sequences and syllable structures in a language, phonotactics defines the structure of the syllables and consonant clusters which are allowed, also tries to define the sequences of vowels through phonotactics restrictions What studies phonotactics? Phonotactics studies what sounds can be preceded and followed by another sounds, this is a factor that can to affect in the acquisition of the vocabulary in the second language.
Based on Halliday and Matthiessen (2004) in the system functional grammar there are three kinds of metafunction; ideational, interpersonal and textual meaning. In this research the researcher chooses to use interpersonal meaning and will be more explained by two components: mood element and modality due to the researcher will focus on the message of the texts or the speech. Elements of interpersonal meanings are Mood and Residue. The component that gets bandied back and forth is what we call the Mood element of the clause. Mood element