(p.2) It integrates a word-level alignments and phrasal alignment as well, taking into account source text words, phrase co-occurrence, etc. (Koehn, 2010, p. 56). In other words, it does not use the sentence example directly, but rather uses derived units from the data. Flanagan (2009) states that SMT is a more dominant approach that is usually used in commercial translation engines such as Google Translate (p. 31). Soudi et al.
Equivalent effect seems to be a complex concept which can be applied to different types of texts in a certain degree. In audiovisual translation, which is going to be the subject later on, equivalent effect plays a very important role and is essential to be achieved in order to produce the same response in target audience as it does in source audience. 10 1.1.4. Cultural equivalence Cultural equivalence appears to be another applicable concept to be explained, as it is strongly connected to intertextuality, the main topic of this paper. When talking of cultural equivalence one cannot omit the notion of ‘untranslatability’.
Therefore, due to that there is no agreed standard for literature translation, it is necessary for literature text to be retranslated by taking into considerations such factors as time, society, history, and cultural context. Functional equivalence theory can offer translators with a new perspective for a in-depth study of translating, apart from a strong explanatory power. Through the in-depth analysis of the two English versions of Biancheng, I hope my goal can be achieved to do some help on the translation of the works of the Shen Congwen and some references to the translation of literary
Linguistic profiling of a piece of writing (as observed in the Unabomber case) and Authorship profiling (as observed in the Kurt Cobain case). Authorship profiling works by observing syntax, words, and vocabulary and analyzing what traits or points are being communicated indirectly to create a linguistic profile. Professors Sudjana and Fitiri describe this as the linguistic fingerprint. This type of profiling is generally broader and utilizes classic linguistic profiling through detection of patterns, grammar, vocab, etc… The difference being that Authorship profiling and linguistic profiling id that authorship profiling is generally expected to yield more psychological information, linguistic profiling will aid in identifying race, location, gender,
According to Bouvy (2000), “enhancing the connections between the languages in both teachers and learners; that is, bridging the languages, creating synergies and exploiting resources” (Bouvy 2000: 38). In Khamene’s study (2011) on comparison between bilinguals’ and trilinguals’ writing performance, the nature of interconnections presented in the writing performances differs across varying levels of proficiency in each language. According to Khamene, writing skills and strategies and even concepts readily developed in the previous languages are accessible through the target language (Khamene
In their Introduction to Text Linguistics, De Beaugrande and Dressler (2002) state that intertextuality “concerns the factors which make the utilization of one text dependent upon knowledge of one or more previously encountered texts”. In other words, it denotes the interconnection that exists within texts, which not only include literature, but embrace all kinds of contexts. The technique of referring to other works is frequently used in Willy Russell’s Educating Rita and Alan Bennett’s The History Boys. Both set in England, they tell different stories under the same broad theme of education. Educating Rita follows the development of a young working class hairdresser Rita and her relationship with her middle aged professor Frank.
Myers & Melton, 1964). Recently, Goh and Aryadoust (2010) tested different models including correlated uniqueness model to evaluate the construct validity of the Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) listening test. Llosa (2007) used multivariate analytic approach based on correlated methods modelling to investigate the correspondence between constructs measured by the test of English proficiency and another standardized instrument. In this study, we propose the multi-language/multi-skill (MLMS) approach as a new methodology to investigate convergent and discriminant validity of foreign language examinations. The approach is based on MTMM (Campbell & Fiske, 1959) and CFA.
2. CROSS-LINGUISTIC SEMANTICS Cross-linguistic semantics studies the ways different languages are structured, and thus how meaning is expressed differently in them (Goddard, 2008: abstract on cover page) deals with investigating how languages package and express meanings differently. Cross-linguistic research and comparison is often conducted using a linguistic theory named the NSM (Natural Semantic Metalanguage) system, which was developed by Anna Wierzbicka. The NSM system is a decompositional one, which means it breaks down complex units into parts which are easier to study and understand. The NSM breaks down languages to established universal semantic primes or “simple indefinable meanings” (Goddard, 2008: 1), simply put as words, whose
Before moving onto findings, it is important once more to note the similarity of these samples. The fact that the teacher gave her learners a great deal of support during this exercise in some ways limits this analysis. We cannot know what the learners might have written without a topic and supporting materials so perfectly matched. However, there is some benefit in knowing that the length and structures used are similar. This similarity helps bring the frequency of errors into focus.
This is due to the fact that in translating a text misunderstanding may occur. In order to prevent such misunderstanding, cohesive ties must be used optimally. Paying attention to cohesive ties in translation, makes the target text more comprehensible. The process of translation necessitates a complex text and discourse processing. The process of interpretation performed by the translator on the source text (SL) might lead to a target language (TL) text which is more redundant than the SL text.