The first question is about the different types of research design. Burns and Grove (2003, P195) define the research design as “a blueprint for conducting a study with maximum control over factors that may interfere with the validity of the findings”. There are three types of research; Quantitative research, Qualitative research and Mixed method research. Research is an approach or method of data collection and analysis that leads the research to either quantitative or qualitative and most often a mixture of both. Quantitative research may require some sort of qualitative data analysis and vice versa.
Ethnography studies the customs of a particular culture. For those who study culture, one popular research method is the participant observation method. Participant observation is a method used in ethnography. The goal of participant observation is to learn a culture through close interaction and personal observation with a particular group of individuals. To have close interaction with the group, the researcher will take the role of a “player” in the group.
In anthropological research, this method is used to collect the information and is considered the core part of a research. By using the methods, one researcher can get the outcome. A method or methodology is the underlying principles and rules of organization of a philosophical system or inquiring procedure.
It could also be defined as social research that uses empirical methods and empirical statement. Since quantitative research is about collecting numerical data to explain a phenomenon, particular question seem immediately suited to being answered using quantitative method. Quantitative research is a systematic process used to gather and statistically analyze information that has been measured by an instrument. Instruments are used to convert information into numbers. It examines phenomenon through the numerical representation of observations and statistical analysis.
This study used a qualitative approach based on the Qualitative Research method. The main objective of qualitative research is to examine the individual’s whole experience, not simply looking at specific parts. It is commonly used to understand people's experience and to express their perspectives. In this method of research the researcher generates or constructs knowledge, hypotheses, and grounded theory from data collecting during field work' (Johnson & Christensen, 2012). It studies groups and individuals in natural setting; attempt to understand insiders' views, meaning and perspectives.
Qualitative research is the preference instead of quantitative because theories in qualitative research are formulated after data collection, instead of using preconceived concepts and theories to determine what data will be collected. A qualitative research method is an inquiry approach in which a researcher explores a central issue through secondary data. 7.6 SOURCE OF QUALITATIVE DATA: 7.6.1 LITERATURE
• Qualitative - based on methods which are said to be humanistic. For example: through interview or observation. Qualitative research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviors. • Descriptive Research: In descriptive studies are designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exist. In analytical studies the researchers analyze the available facts
The study will involve three phases, namely the conceptual, narrative and interpretative phases (Field & Morse 1996). In contrast to quantitative research, qualitative inquiry involves various analytical inferences, procedures of the inquiry and methods of data collection, the analysis and explanation (Creswell 2009, 173). Qualitative research accentuates the attributes of systems, processes and connotations that are not practically examined or calculated in terms of capacity, amount, intensity or regularity (Denzin and Lincoln 2000,
1.2 Interview: The type of interview used for a research study is usually an in-depth interview. This will involve interviews with participants who have lived a personal experience that improve the knowledge on aspects of the research. A trained interviewer uses an established list of open questions for the most part that will be asked to investigate the research questions from the respondent. 1.3 Questionnaire Survey: The research instrument that would be used in this research paper to gather informationis the questionnaire ehich isquantitative research. Questionnaire is one of the best ways to gather information.
The scientific method is an approach used by psychologists and researchers who want to have a systematic and objective way of recording and understanding behaviour and any other topic that may be of interest. It is comprised of four main steps that will be discussed below, along with my example research situation. Before a researcher can dive into doing research, s/he must identify a question of interest. The researcher might make an observation of some strange phenomena or even everyday behaviour that begs for an explanation. It might be something they saw, were told or read from previous literature or findings.