The antibiotics commonly used are ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim or Spectra), nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and the fluroquinolone. Appropriate treatment kills the bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract and shortens the course of the illness (Lectures in Microbiology by Kenneth Todar). Quinolones were highly effective drug for the treatment of shigellosis. WHO
The most commonly reported resistance is to clindamycin, with resistance rates between 3.2% and 14%, depending on the tested bacterial strain [68, 82]. Other reports have documented infectious progression despite actinomycin D treatment . Although antibiotic regimens differ depending on treatment team, various susceptibility testing suggests prominent responses to metronidazole, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, penicillin, gentamicin or cefoxitin [82, 83]. Table 4 illustrates the optimal antibiotic
Interference by ceftriaxone in serum creatinine estimation by Jaffe’s alkaline picrate method: a case report Abstract: Serum creatinine, routinely used to asses the glomerular function is commonly measured by Jaffe’s alkaline picrate method. Many interfering substances have been reported for this non-specific method including many cephalosporin antibiotics. We here report the effect of ceftriaxone in serum creatinine estimation by Jaffe’s method in the patient. Her serum creatinine levels before and after intravenous ceftriaxone administration was 0.7 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl respectively. The study concluded that ceftriaxone has no significant effect with this method.
Inducing Prodigiosin Transposon mutagenesis in Serratia Marcescens Introduction Serratia Marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, mainly of healthcare facilities but can also be found in many diverse environments. Serratia is a gram negative bacteria which can give it innate resistance to certain antibiotics, especially those that target peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis, due to its outer membrane. In an environment with different microorganisms competing for food Serratia holds a component that gives it another selective advantage. The bacteria contains a red pigment called prodigiosin, that has antibacterial, antifungal, and even antiprotozoal activity. The pigment is produced due to quorum sensing of bacteria, when an appropriate level of N-hex
Innate resistance is said to be possessed by bacteria naturally, for e.g. some bacteria are more resistant to certain antibiotics than others. For instance, gram-negative bacteria are inherently resistant to a number of antibiotics such as Vancomycin and fusidic acid, which are highly effective against Gram-positive organisms like Streptococci and Staphylococci, within the gram-negative group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa have notable intractable chemotherapeutic problem as it has an unusual level of intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. This inherent resistance seems to be associated with the permeability of the complex outer layers of the cell envelope to some drugs, which prevents the attainment of an inhibitory concentration within the cell. The non-specific resistance of gram-negative bacteria is recognized as a limitation in the treatments of infections of these organisms.
Apparatus- Chromatography column: C18 (10 microns particle size), with Guard column Flow rate: 1.2ml/min Pressure: 30-40kgf Wavelength: 326nm Mobile phase: methanol : water (95:5 v/v) Internal standard: retinyl acetate Injection volume: 20µl Procedure for Retinol extraction from serum samples- 1) 100 µl of serum sample and 100 µl of Retinyl acetate were added into 12 X 100mm glass test tubes. Vortex-mixed for 30 seconds. Then, kept them at 4 C for 5 mins. 2) 1mL of hexane was added and vortex-mixed intermittently for 60 sec. 3) Centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 12 mins.
Q1A: What is the mechanism of action of colistin? Colistin is an antibiotic that works best against Gram-negative bacteria. It works by binding to LPSs (lipopolysaccrides) and phospholipids in the outer cell membrane of the bacteria. This, in turn, disrupts the outer cell membrane by displacing cations and leaking the intracellular contents, combining it with outer cellular contents, causing the bacteria to be unable to differentiate the bacteria’s intra and outer cellular contents from one another. This ultimately leads to the bacteria’s death.
Infective keratitis rarely occurs in normal eyes without any predisposing factors. The ocular surface is normally protected from microbial invasion through an intricate biochemical and anatomic relationship between the cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal secretory apparatus and precorneal tear film, and the eye lids. Any disruption of the same may results in less effective defense against infection and such risk factors may vary with occupation. An association has been shown between the type of risk factor and the microbial aetiology for infection 5. Corneal injury due to vegetative matter predispose mainly to fungal keratitis, while use of contact lenses and other non-traumatic risk factors to bacterial keratitis6.
influenzae and some enterobacteria like E coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. These bacteria do not produce β-lactamase Ceftazidime is effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Some of these third-generation cephalosporin drugs have poor activity against gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Ceftibuten and cefixime only have slight activity against S. aureus, so if it is used for infections in the skin and soft-tissues, it should be limited to uncomplicated streptococcal infections. The following cephalosporins in this class are used for many clinical conditions: Oral medications Cefixime
3 pieces disc will be placed onto each plate that inoculated with E. coli, and last 3 pieces will be placed on plate inoculated with S. typhimurium. Positive control antibiotic, which is, will be placed in all inoculated plates. Then all plates are will be inoculated at 37oC for 24 hours in the incubator. After 24 hours, the inhibition zone will be observed and its diameter will be measured in millimeter if exist. The existence of inhibition zone indicates the presence of antibacterial activity on the leaves extract.