One advantage of using the hierarchical clustering technique is that it can identify small geographic areas that may have higher rates of crime activity. This technique also is useful for identifying the linkages in some small clusters going to high cluster areas. The limitations of hierarchical clustering include a certain arbitrariness based on what constitutes a meaningful cluster size. The size of the grouping area also depends on sample size. In conclusion crime distributions that has many incident locations (e.g., residential robbery cases) will show small group areas, while crime rates with few incident locations (e.g., homicides) will have larger grouped areas.
This article is significant for the intended audience, city governments, and police heads if they want to understand how they can manage corruption in the police force. It has been written in a language this is easily understandable by the intended audience, and
Based on extensive research and the overwhelming amount of serial killer cases, it seems as if identifying a serial killer or recognizing the signs of one would be easier with the modern technology and sciences we have today. This is not the case, however, as there are extensive profiling strategies and origins in which a serial killer can bloom from. Pinpointing exact turning moments for a potential killer can be difficult, as many face suppressed memories from their childhoods and variables which ultimately impact their mental health. Understanding the mind of a serial killer goes deeper than knowing family background, but conflicts in personality and genes. Pinpointing potential serial killers by examining a range of suspects’ psychological
The study of Guerette and Bowers provides variety of valuable information on situational crime prevention. Their studies involve both the descriptive and analytical examination of the facts that they have gathered. Thus, this studies give us a collective picture of the extent to which the “displacement and diffusion” effects were provided in their analyses of SCP, there finding must not be taken as an exact quantification of the cause and effect of the study. Though they might encountered many challenges in this field of study in the near future. This study also offers support for the effectiveness of SCP and shared some important facts that might help in improving the study of Situational Crime
It is assumed, that crime is having a purpose behavior designed to meet the offender’s common place needs for such things as money, status, sex and excitement, and that meeting these needs involves the making of decisions and choices, constrained as these are by limits, ability, and the availability of relevant information. In addition, (Alkers, R. 1990) rational choice literature takes a strong quantitative modeling approach derived from econometric modeling, which advances our ability to test complex models of criminal behavior and the criminal justice system, Rational choice also has inspired some empirical work on decision making in specific crime and crime events as well as in criminal justice policy, both of which were projects that might not otherwise have been
Task 1; In your own words define the term criminal psychology There are many reasons for the disagreement and unofficial definition of the term ‘’Criminal Psychology’’. If I asked a stranger on the street to give me their definition of the topic, they would more than likely say ‘’someone who deals with catching criminals’’ or ‘’them people from criminal minds’’. In my opinion it’s much more than that. Criminal Psychology is the finding, studying and understanding of people who disobey the legal system.
When a crime is committed and an individual is caught in the act, there is a set process that one follows to adhere to the rules of the criminal justice system. This method can be simplified by looking at the common flow of events: (1) an individual is arrested, (2) individual is brought to court, (3) individual receives a punishment. Though it may appear that the way in which the criminal justice system functions is sufficient, many voice the concern that there are certain key players affected by crimes that are consistently disregarded. These players are otherwise known as the victims and the community. As a result, many have hypothesized a new approach to justice that incorporate all aspects of crime.
Crime occurs in the United States on a daily basis, it ranges from crime as low as a misdemeanor to crimes that will result in a death penalty. With the tremendous amount of crime occurring in the country there are ways the federal and state governments keep records of the crimes allowing the citizens to seek information about crime rates in certain areas of the country. This information also allows the country to calculate the national crime rate, which in return allows us to know the risk we have of falling victim to serious crimes. There are several ways to gather data on crime, the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), and The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) are among the most notable sources that provide data on crime. Though these sources have their strengths in reporting data on crime they also contain flaws that can affect the outcome of accurate reports.
Often a characteristic in serial killers is directly correlated to a mix of nature and nurture rather than one or the other. Another thing that divides serial killers from other murderers is the motives behind their actions. Most murders committed are done by people that know the victim, and had some motive or reason behind killing them, serial killers usually have no direct motive other than a want for power and control over the victim. This is why serial killers can kill so many without being caught and the police finding only strands of evidence behind them on multiple different
This syndrome is more fundamental than the popular assertion that officers’ racial animus is the main problem.” (477). Because high crime areas have such a strong dislike and mistrust for the police, answering some calls become dangerous for the responding officers. While answering these calls officers become more alert and anxious. Most of the time when an officer makes an arrest or discharges his/her weapon it has nothing to do with race but it has everything to do with the crime.
Introduction You asked that I examine the investigative tool, criminal behavioral analysis, its racial misuse and controversial issues and whether it still has the ability to solve critical crimes using the method. Criminal profiling has always been a means of solving or assisting a crime and trying to prevent it from happening again. It helps narrow down the investigation down by pointing out certain behavioral characteristics of the kind of person who most likely committed the crime. The issue that I was presented with was racial misuse done by law enforcement and it’s impact on African Americans, Muslims, and other minorities. Criminal profiling is an effective tool for law enforcement but has been used in a harsh and inconsiderate way
Describe the limitations associated with criminal justice policy making. In an ideal world law enforcement, policy makers and policing agencies are equally aligned with the forces behind criminal activity. They collect information, follow the clues and make arrest, when dealing with computer crimes there a few immediate factors that limit not only fighting the crime but knowing for certain whether it is a crime or not. Many law enforcement officers that handle computer crimes only understand basic computer language and cyber criminal terminology because it is constantly evolved, that not only limits they knowledge of what is criminal but they are also limited to how the law is applied to the crime.
Crime specific strategies are targeted strategies, targeted specific offense committed by specific types of offenders at specific times and place (Hoover, L. 2014). New York City introduces a crime specific strategy by using random patrol in the early days, and it produce positive results. A crime specific strategy entails a combination of match between targeting and tactics (Hoover, L. 2014). There are different ways to be effective in reducing crime such as planning, monitoring, contemplative, being proactive and continuously too modified. While being proactive in doing investigation will help to reduce crime by leading to more arrests being made.
Crime statistics are the numbers which compiles the different kinds of offences made in a particular jurisdiction in a specific time period. These records may be made after some certain criteria such as: the actual number of crimes happened in a given time and space, how the crimes are distributed between the population and the counts of criminal incidents as an indicator of the population. In the following lines I will highlight the struggle to understand the levels of crime in UK using criminal statistics. These statistics are made, amongst other, using the incident logs of police.
In James Knoll’s article Serial Murder: A Forensic Psychiatric Perspective, which was published in the Psychiatric Times, Knoll takes a more psychological look, into murders and breaking down the concept of it. Firstly, he breaks into society’s amazement with serial murders, showing that there and multiple books, movies, and television shows that center around that theme. Even though serial murders is completely terrifying to most of the society, it is very rare compared to other crimes. From the last six decades, victims of homicides that are female have decreased. In the circumstance of serial murders, there has been documentation of the events for centuries, even going back to the sixteenth century.