One advantage of using the hierarchical clustering technique is that it can identify small geographic areas that may have higher rates of crime activity. This technique also is useful for identifying the linkages in some small clusters going to high cluster areas. The limitations of hierarchical clustering include a certain arbitrariness based on what constitutes a meaningful cluster size. The size of the grouping area also depends on sample size. In conclusion crime distributions that has many incident locations (e.g., residential robbery cases) will show small group areas, while crime rates with few incident locations (e.g., homicides) will have larger grouped areas.
The article’s objective is to identify why some city governments have managed to change the corruption equilibrium while others have failed. The article achieves its objectives by analysing the example of the Hong Kong city government and its success in managing corruption in the police force. This article is significant for the intended audience, city governments, and police heads if they want to understand how they can manage corruption in the police force. It has been written in a language this is easily understandable by the intended audience, and
Based on extensive research and the overwhelming amount of serial killer cases, it seems as if identifying a serial killer or recognizing the signs of one would be easier with the modern technology and sciences we have today. This is not the case, however, as there are extensive profiling strategies and origins in which a serial killer can bloom from. Pinpointing exact turning moments for a potential killer can be difficult, as many face suppressed memories from their childhoods and variables which ultimately impact their mental health. Understanding the mind of a serial killer goes deeper than knowing family background, but conflicts in personality and genes. Pinpointing potential serial killers by examining a range of suspects’ psychological
The study of Guerette and Bowers provides variety of valuable information on situational crime prevention. Their studies involve both the descriptive and analytical examination of the facts that they have gathered. Thus, this studies give us a collective picture of the extent to which the “displacement and diffusion” effects were provided in their analyses of SCP, there finding must not be taken as an exact quantification of the cause and effect of the study. Though they might encountered many challenges in this field of study in the near future. This study also offers support for the effectiveness of SCP and shared some important facts that might help in improving the study of Situational Crime
It is assumed, that crime is having a purpose behavior designed to meet the offender’s common place needs for such things as money, status, sex and excitement, and that meeting these needs involves the making of decisions and choices, constrained as these are by limits, ability, and the availability of relevant information. In addition, (Alkers, R. 1990) rational choice literature takes a strong quantitative modeling approach derived from econometric modeling, which advances our ability to test complex models of criminal behavior and the criminal justice system, Rational choice also has inspired some empirical work on decision making in specific crime and crime events as well as in criminal justice policy, both of which were projects that might not otherwise have been
Task 1; In your own words define the term criminal psychology There are many reasons for the disagreement and unofficial definition of the term ‘’Criminal Psychology’’. If I asked a stranger on the street to give me their definition of the topic, they would more than likely say ‘’someone who deals with catching criminals’’ or ‘’them people from criminal minds’’. In my opinion it’s much more than that. Criminal Psychology is the finding, studying and understanding of people who disobey the legal system. Task 2; Explain the difference between crime and deviance and give three examples of each.
When a crime is committed and an individual is caught in the act, there is a set process that one follows to adhere to the rules of the criminal justice system. This method can be simplified by looking at the common flow of events: (1) an individual is arrested, (2) individual is brought to court, (3) individual receives a punishment. Though it may appear that the way in which the criminal justice system functions is sufficient, many voice the concern that there are certain key players affected by crimes that are consistently disregarded. These players are otherwise known as the victims and the community. As a result, many have hypothesized a new approach to justice that incorporate all aspects of crime.
Crime occurs in the United States on a daily basis, it ranges from crime as low as a misdemeanor to crimes that will result in a death penalty. With the tremendous amount of crime occurring in the country there are ways the federal and state governments keep records of the crimes allowing the citizens to seek information about crime rates in certain areas of the country. This information also allows the country to calculate the national crime rate, which in return allows us to know the risk we have of falling victim to serious crimes. There are several ways to gather data on crime, the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), and The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) are among the most notable sources that provide data on crime. Though these sources have their strengths in reporting data on crime they also contain flaws that can affect the outcome of accurate reports.
Often a characteristic in serial killers is directly correlated to a mix of nature and nurture rather than one or the other. Another thing that divides serial killers from other murderers is the motives behind their actions. Most murders committed are done by people that know the victim, and had some motive or reason behind killing them, serial killers usually have no direct motive other than a want for power and control over the victim. This is why serial killers can kill so many without being caught and the police finding only strands of evidence behind them on multiple different
Weitzer is able to illuminate how there is a correlation between poverty and crime, “an interaction between (1) high neighborhood-level poverty and unemployment, (2) residents’ involvement in illicit survival strategies […], and (3) aggressive police practices – each of which contributes to popular alienation from and avoidance of the police, if not outright hostility toward them. This syndrome is more fundamental than the popular assertion that officers’ racial animus is the main problem.” (477). Because high crime areas have such a strong dislike and mistrust for the police, answering some calls become dangerous for the responding officers. While answering these calls officers become more alert and anxious. Most of the time when an officer makes an arrest or discharges his/her weapon it has nothing to do with race but it has everything to do with the crime.