Q1- transduction , transformation , and conjugation in microorganisms . Give a definition and main differences with example . - Transduction : it`s a process of transform the genetic material in bacterial cell where the transform of genetic material occur by virus (bacteriophage) , where the virus transfer the genetic material from the host cell to another host cell , where the virus will initiate another cycle of infection . example : prophages , GTA ( gene transfer agent) . - Transformation : it’s the process when bacterial cell are able to uptake the free DNA from their environment example : B. subtilis is an important for bacterial genetic study but they are not naturally competent , and the transform of these stain is possible only by highly unnatural means such as protoplast electroportion .
Studies say that the goal of doing this genetic engineering is to give the original organism new characteristics, like disease resistance. Adding GMOS to food can result significant allergy risks to people who consume GMO food products. Genetic modification sometimes mixes or adds proteins that isn’t or wasn’t apart of the original plant or animal, that’s causing an allergic reaction to form in the human body. Also studies state le that GMOs are not always tested so thoroughly. GMO testing also involves performing experiments in animals.
Cycloheximide applies its impact by interfering with the translocation steps in protein synthesize (development of two tRNA atoms and mRNA in connection to the ribosome), hence blocking translational prolongation. Cycloheximide is generally utilized as a part of biomedical research to repress protein synthesize in eukaryotic cells except for S.aureus and E.coli contemplated in vitro (i.e. outside of microorganism). It is cheap and works quickly. Actually after the interaction of 72 hours, both growth of E.coli and S.aureus will be inhibited by Cycloheximide antibiotic.
Other than these two I guess one of the antibiotic will work quite fine as they have quite unique and powerful way to stop or kill the bacteria, so one way or another one antibiotic will sure to get a good result. Independent variable: Dependent variable: In this experiment we will measure the zone of the inhabited, how much the antibiotic have work on the bacteria?We will measure the area that antibiotic have taken from the bacteria. To measure the area as accurate as possible we will use digital
Introduction A mutation is a heritable change that is passed from the mother cell to progeny cells. Mutations may lead to good, bad or neutral phenotypic changes in the organism. They may occur spontaneously as in random DNA replicative errors or may be induced by mutagenic chemicals or radiation. Besides mutations, another way that bacteria achieve gene diversity is through the three known mechanisms for intercellular gene transfer. They are transformation, a genetic process which free DNA is incorporated into a recipient cell, transduction, a process which bacterial virus transfers DNA to another cell, and conjugation, a form of horizontal gene transfer which requires cell-to-cell contact.
To calculate the amount of DNA spread in the plate, the total amount of pGLO DNA in μg was multiplied by the fraction of DNA used. Discussion The E. coli on the plates labelled +pGLO were transformed and the E. coli on the plates labelled -pGLO were not. Bacterial growth resulted on the LB -pGLO plate because the medium was made using LB only, which is a source of food for the E. coli cells. Thus, they were able to grow and reproduce. This was expected as prior research suggested that bacterial cells can be grown on top of agar easily5.
They are primarily used for colouring cotton, leather, cosmetics, and food items . Azo dyes belong to a group of organic compounds. The azo 14 group of dyes binds to an aromatic ring. Through mineralization, these dyes can be splitted into an aromatic amine, an arylamine that is suspected to be carcinogenic. Most of the azo dyes are water soluble and readily to absorb through skin and intake may lead to the risk of cancer and allergic reactions, an irritant for the eyes and extremely dangerous , if inhaled or consumed (Nikulina et al., 1995).
ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance is a major global concern today. New resistance mechanisms of some bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are emerging globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases. This research study focuses on determining whether the selected plant based anti-quorum sensing in conjuction with cipfloxacin, where pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to be resistant, will generate an effective results to aid the scare of antimicrobial resistance. The selected plants: Musa paradisiaca (AQS 01), Zingeber officinale (AQS 02) and Origanum vulgare (AQS 03) were certified at the Philippine National Herbarium for proper identification of genus and species and undergone ethanolic crude extraction & rotary evaporator at Industrial Technology Development Institute – Department of Science and Technology (ITDI-DOST) yielded a semi solid extracts of 3.9 % for AQS 01, 1.4 % for AQS 02 and 1.6% for
By disruption some protein adherent cells, using trypsin treatment helps cells break down. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are an endotoxin and also the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In the research laboratory, LPS have been used to secretion of growth promoting factors and induce synthesis. Moreover, because of its connection to septicemia, LPS has been to identify possible inhibitors
(Cuthberson,1990) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING CASSIA ALATA AS AN ANTIBACTERIAL Antibiotics are one of our most important weapons in fighting bacterial infections and have greatly benefited the health-related quality of human life since their introductio. It is essential to investigate newer drugs with lesser resistance. Drugs derived from natural sources play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.It has been tested that cassia alata are good supplement for other antibacterial candidates,it may lead to less expense than other products. Cassia alata is commonly used as an antibacterial and anti-fungal treatment for various skin diseases that includes;tinea infections,ringworms ,aczema,scabies, insect bites,and all sorts of skin itchiness.Cassia alata leaves are safe for most adults, however the seeds should not be taken for long term.It may