Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry defined the concept of service quality as “ a form of attitude, related but not equivalent to satisfaction that results from a comparison of expectations with perception of performance. An expectation are viewed as desired or wants of consumers, i.e., what they feel a service provider should offer rather than what the service supplier would offer. 3. Gronroos and Lehtinen (1985) believe that service quality consists of two generic types of quality technical (or output) quality and functional (or process) quality. The technical quality refers to the traditional quality control, as in manufacturing.
• Gaps model: there is little evidence that customers assess service quality in terms of P – E gaps. • Process orientation: SERVQUAL focuses on the process of service delivery, not the outcomes of the service encounter. • Dimensionality: SERVQUAL’s five dimensions are not universal; the number of dimensions comprising service quality is contextualized; items do not always load on to the factors which one would a priori expect; and there is a high degree of intercorrelation between the five dimensions (Reliability, assurance, tangible, empathy and responsiveness). Operational Criticism • Expectations: the term expectation is polysemic meaning it has different definitions; consumers use standards other than expectations to evaluate service quality; and SERVQUAL fails to measure absolute service quality
Assurance ie., knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence; and 5. Empathy ie., individualized attention the facility provides to its customers. Finn & Lamb (1991) agree that the aforementioned constructs are important aspects of service quality, but Cronin & Taylor (1992) have been skeptical about whether these dimensions are applicable when evaluating service quality in other service industries. On the basis of their review of service quality literature, McDougall and Levesque (ibid), argued that there are two overriding dimensions to service quality. The first one being the core or outcome aspects (contractual) of the service, and the second being the relational or process aspects (customer-employee relationship) of the service.
(1985) presented 10 determinants which included reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding/knowing the customer, and tangibles. In their succeeding study, using the SERVQUAL measure, some of these determinants were combined and only five dimensions remained (Parasuraman et al. 1988). The five dimensions consisted of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. Generally, service quality is a way to manage business processes in order to ensure total satisfaction to the customer on all levels (internal and external).
2.6. The SERVQUAL service quality models The SERVQUAL is a quality management framework, used to measure quality in the service sector, developed by Valarie Zeithaml, Len Berry and Parasuraman in 1998. Businesses use SERVQUAL to manage and measure service quality implement a questionnaire measuring customer expectations about service quality in five dimensions. The service quality is low, that means the perceptions of received delivery is much lower than the customer expectations. According to the authors, SERVQUAL is not only a measurement model, it also is a management model; and there are five gaps that can lead customers experience poor service quality.
However there are some drawback as well in the SERVQUAL model. The major one being, the five service quality dimensions are not general and cannot be applied to all service industries. Further Buttle (1996) cited on Aborampah 2010 argues that there is a little proof that customers evaluate the quality of service on the basis of the difference between perception and expectation. Based on a review of the literature, many studies have proven that the quality of service has been recognized as the key strategic value to organizations, and may have an impact on customer satisfaction and customer retention, cross-selling opportunities , reduce costs and increase profit margins and business performance, and the development of customer relationship - time value of life (Adil,
The term service quality refers to the assimilation of two factors that is service and quality. Therefore, maintaining a perfect equilibrium, between the two factors would enhance the overall scenario. As opined by Bansal& Taylor (2012), service quality can be measured according
The use of perceived as opposed to actual service received makes the SERVQUAL measure an attitude measure that is related to, but not the same as, satisfaction (Parasuraman et. al., 1988). SERVQUAL being introduced by Parsauraman et al. (1988) has been adopted widely across. Initially it was a 22 item scale which later on was reduced to 5 items scale with reliability, assurance, tangibility, empathy and responsiveness (Prasuraman et al., 1991).
The objective of this study is framed to examine the service quality across five dimensions such as tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy as recommended by Zeithmal and Parashuram SERVQUAL model. A structured questionnaire with required items supporting the above
According to Antony et al. (2004), the concept of service quality has gained increasing popularity since its incep-tion in the late 1970s. Due to its significant impact on business performance, cost sav-ing, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and profitability; service quality has become a main area of attention among practitioners, managers and researchers (Seth et al. 2005). Service quality is consumers’ judgment of the excellence and superiority of the service en-counter (Zeithaml and Bitner 2003).