Service Quality Theory

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2.1. Service and service quality concept Service concept
In a research carried out by Johns (1998, p.954) shows that the concept “service” has many meanings; in management literature, it is defined as an industry, an output or offering or a performance. Service also can be described as ‘intagible’ and the output is viewed as an activity; because some service outputs have substantial tangible components such as equipment, personnel and facilities.
Another study of Johns (1998, p.968-970) points out that service is viewed defferently by the consumer and the provider. For the consumers, they view service as a phenomenon meaning which is part of an experience of life, consists of core need, emotional content and choice.
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2.6. The SERVQUAL service quality models
The SERVQUAL is a quality management framework, used to measure quality in the service sector, developed by Valarie Zeithaml, Len Berry and Parasuraman in 1998.
Businesses use SERVQUAL to manage and measure service quality implement a questionnaire measuring customer expectations about service quality in five dimensions. The service quality is low, that means the perceptions of received delivery is much lower than the customer expectations.
According to the authors, SERVQUAL is not only a measurement model, it also is a management model; and there are five gaps that can lead customers experience poor service quality.
• Gap 1: Between customer expectation and management perception
The gap appears when the management does not perceive what customers want correctly. Factors lead to this gap are: weak in interpreting information about customer expectation, insufficient marketing research and research is not focused on demand
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• Assuarance: courtesy and knowledge of employees and their compentence to inspire confidence and trust.
• Tangibles: appearance of physical quipment, facilities, communication materials and personnel.
• Empathy: provision of caring individualized attention to customers.
• Responsiveness: willingness to provide service and help customers.
In 1992, Cronnin & Taylor developed the SERVPERF model derived from the SERVQUAL model by dropping the measuring service quality perceptions and customer expectations and evaluating customer’s overall feeling towards the service. Cronin et al., (1992, p.64) indicates that the SERVPERF model evaluates cutomers experience on the same base as the SERVQUAL, and is more close on the attitude literature and satisfaction. The SERVPERF has four main equations:
• SERVQUAL = Performance – Expectations
• Weighted SERVQUAL = Importance x (Performance – Expectations)
• SERVPERF = Performance
• Weighted SERPERF = Importance x

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