Literature Review: Hostile Sexism Against Women

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LITERATURE VIEW In today’s world, it cannot be denied that patriarchy, political, social and traditional power of male over other genders, is faced inevitably (Goldberg, 1993) Sexism is one of the most common problematic issues in today’s society that shapes people behavior on gender and usually it is seen as hostile behavior against women. However, its one side of which people are unaware is missed: positive-thought part of sexism (Glick and Fiske, 1996). Benevolent sexism and hostile sexism are subdivisions of ambivalent sexism. Benevolent sexism refers to sexist ideas, behaviors thought for the benefit of females. On the contrary, hostile sexism is having negative, unfavorable notions and behave accordingly against women (Glick and Fiske,…show more content…
Injunctive ones are what people should do and descriptive ones are what people really do. (Eagly, Diekman & Wood, 2000). Cialdini and Trost (1998) claimed that these 2 norms help us to understand the power of gender roles that determine behaviors because behaving against to injunctive norms is not welcomed and behaving against descriptive norms create a situation unexpected (cited in Eagly, Diekman & Wood, 2000). This kind of norms, rules are most frequent encountered circumstances contributing gender role stereotypes. Sexism in language is very clear fact and there is a lot of article about sexist language (Blaubergs, 1980). Structure of a language may not present a sex difference in pronouns but there are some arguments support that this may show high status of woman and some are against this. As cited in Blaubergs (1980), Haugen has a point:
‘It is perhaps too facile to reply that women can hardly be said to have a higher position in society where languages are spoken like Japanese, Chinese, Eskimo, or Tamil, which do not make gender distinctions.’ (Haugen, 1977a ; p.

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