The force necessary to support a conviction of rape need only be such as to establish lack of consent and to induce the victim to submit without additional resistance. The degree of force required to constitute rape is relative and depends on the facts and particular circumstance of the
The police searched Robert Pickton’s farm, and found 80 DNA profiles of both men and women retrieved on pillowslips, inhalers, syringes, jackets, lipsticks, boots, bags and many more objects that were identified by forensic biologists (Palmer et al., n.d.). Additional assistance in this case was from “forensic scientists, odontologists, foot morphologists, chemical biologists, and archaeologists” (Mudede, Selcer, Berentson, & Lovejoy, 2003). However, due to the location and brutality of this investigation, forensic anthropology was the major forensic discipline in this case. Forensic anthropologists analyze human remains and apply it in a legal context. They use the study of bone and from that, they determine how a person died as well as the age, gender, height and ancestry of the deceased that leads to the identification of a human being (Forensic Anthropologist, 2015).
The one key physical piece of evidence linking Scott Peterson to the murder of Laci is the 6-inch dark strand of hair found wrapped around pliers on Scott’s fishing boat(Vries, 2003). Ultimately, the discipline that led to the death sentencing of Scott Peterson was Mitochondrial DNA determined to be that of Laci Peterson in the dark hair strands on his pliers(Vries, 2003). Mitochondrial DNA testing has been around many years dating back to its use of identifying the causalities of the Vietnam War and victims of the 9/11 attacks(Vries, 2003). There have been admissions of computer glitches and routine failure of lab equipment in the past, but this method is widely accepted across the nation as admissible evidence(Vries, 2003). Mitochondrial DNA testing cannot particularly identify someone, but it can statistically conclude when compared to a relative’s DNA a likely match(Vries, 2003).
One of the most accurate methods of connecting a suspect with a crime is through the use of DNA analysis. Even if no fingerprints are left behind at a robbery, for instance, a single strand of hair or skin cell from the thief can be used to positively identify a suspect. Conversely, if a suspect’s DNA does not match samples procured from a crime scene, the use of so-called “genetic fingerprinting” can exonerate, or clear, them. Concern over the issue of wrongful convictions, coupled with a sense of greater trust in DNA analysis over other, more conventional methods of prosecution, such as eyewitness testimony, has led some to call for mandatory DNA testing before any person begins serving a sentence for a serious crime, as well as
These laws prohibit the alleged rape victims sexual history from being disclosed during a trial or to the court and jury. Legislation also made laws so that offenders would not be able to drop their charges by stating that a teenager or child looked older then they are. Convictions were also increased with the help of DNA and rape kits. This helps many women indentify and convict their attackers by running evidence through fingerprint and DNA databases, which accurately indentify who assaulted the victim. Technology advancements have also allowed forensics to indentify people even when only a few particles of DNA are left at the crime scene.
Genre Piece 3- Newspaper A rape case resulting in a cold hit is described in the newspaper. In it a woman named Jenny Jones was sexually assaulted 20 years ago and has never received justice until now. Her rape was a cold hit along with several other victims. Jones’s rape case had gone cold because her rape kit had been left to gather dust and was deemed no longer recent enough to bother with.
DNA Fingerprinting on Trial is an article written in 1989 by Ian Evett, Peter Gill, and two others. The article begins by introducing what DNA is and discussing briefly what restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) are, as well as how they are measured with an electrophoresis gel. According to the authors, forensic RFLP testing at this time was being “pioneered” by two laboratories and used by the FBI. The authors then go on to say they believe “the scientific community [has] failed to set rigorous standards to which courts, attorneys and forensic-testing laboratories can look for guidance.” Essentially, the authors think that the techniques used in 1989 for forensic DNA analysis are inadequate and they discuss certain situations in
In society and college campuses, sexual assault occurs quite frequently. According to an estimation one third of women experience a forced sexual experience at least once in their life and most of the time it occurs in colleges. Men have also been reported to be victim of sexual assaults mostly by other men. Most of the time the sexual assault is planned and perpetrated by a third person, who is known to the victim of incident. Drug and alcohol use play role in this issue and contribute to the problem as most of the time the victim and perpetrators are under the effect of alcohol or any other drug during the incident.
The United States is facing a growing problem that shows no signs of slowing: sexual assaults on college campuses. Possible reasons for this epidemic are explained by Janet Napolitano, the current president of the University of California. She describes that “young adults live independently and in close proximity to one another for the first time” while attending college (Napolitano 387). The college setting provides students with opportunities to take advantage of one another. As a result, sexual assaults have become an issue across universities in the United States.
According to the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network, another person endures sexual assault every 98 seconds. This information may have been shocking ten years ago, but for many, this news is a basic fact of life. Sexual assault cases have continued to become more and more common as time goes on. What is causing this surge in unwanted physical contact? The cause of sexual assault is one hundred percent of the time, the assaulter’s fault.
They will watch the CCTV or use the scientific evidence to identify criminals, such as DNA profiling and fingerprint profiling. Forensic scientists can use DNA at a crime scene to identify a matching DNA of an individual, such as a perpetrator. This process is formally termed DNA profiling, but may also be called "genetic fingerprinting". The development of forensic science and the ability to now obtain genetic matching on minute samples of blood, skin, saliva or hair has led to a re-examination of a number of cases. Also, human fingerprints are exhaustive, assumed to be nearly unique, hard to change and durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as long-term markers of human identity.
Sexual assault and sexual abuse are two common types of sexual violence. Sexual assault is a sexual act that could be committed by anyone no matter what kind of relationship they have with the victim. Sexual abuse is an undesired sexual behaviour that was forced upon a person; sexual abuse can be possible to happen for any gender and at any age. So, in case you don’t know sexual assault can be a touch on somewhere you don’t want anyone to touch For example, your thigh, neck...
Sexual assault is a form of forced sexual violence. The term sexual assault can be defined as an act in which a person sexually violates a victim without the victims consent. This is one of the most common problems faced by many schools in South Africa, the problem of sexual assault amongst learners in South African school. Sexual assault is an unlawful act, which the perpetrator can be sentenced to jail for practicing it. Sexual assault can be in a form of fondling of unwanted sexual touching, forcing a victim to perform sexual acts such as oral sex or penetrating the victim’s body and torturing a person in a sexual manner.
There are numerous definitions of rape culture. The most accurate definition of rape culture is, “a complex set of beliefs that encourage male sexual aggression and supports violence against women . . . In a rape culture, women perceive a continuum of threatened violence that ranges from sexual remarks to sexual touching to rape itself. A rape culture condones physical and emotional terrorism against women as the norm . . . In a rape culture, both men and women assume that sexual violence is a fact of life, inevitable.”
In the lab report three students are tested along with one suspect. Student number two’s DNA matched the suspects DNA. The student’s DNA’s are cut with five different enzymes as well as the suspects DNA. Student two’s DNA matched exactly with the suspects DNA; the other two student’s DNA did not resemble the suspects DNA at all. (Choi, et al, 2008) DNA fingerprinting is used a lot in determining who committed a crime.