Sexual Harassment Sexual inconvenience may be really characterized as "verbal or substantial style of a sexual inclination, pointed toward this character or troop of people, particularly inside the work environment or in unique or new lifeless settings, which is vile, as in infringement or not as much as equivalent open door statutes" ("sexual incitement," 2012).If a person in authority such as a boss, mentor, or official is found pressurizing a person holding an inferior position with the intention of obtaining sexual favors, it is typified as sexual harassment. In most cases, sexually unambiguous or evocative behavior by male colleagues may be intended to make a work situation difficult for a recently appointed female. The primary rationale
i) According Section 4 of the Amended Code of Good Practice on the Handling of Sexual Harassment, sexual harassment is defined as: ‘…unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that violates the rights of an employee and constitutes a barrier to equity in the workplace, taking into account all of the following factors: Whether the harassment is on the prohibited grounds of sex and/or gender and/or sexual orientation; The grounds of discrimination to establish sexual harassment are sex, gender and sexual orientation. Same-sex harassment can amount to discrimination on the basis of sex, gender and sexual orientation. Section 3 of the Employment Equity Act states that harassment of an employee is a form of unfair discrimination and is prohibited
Besides sexual harassments have extremely antagonistic effects on individual, social and mental existence of the victims. Because of sexual harassment, victim's social life gets to be exasperates. Sexual harassment likewise impactsly affects working capacities of the victims. All in all sexual harassment influences an individual's employment, meddles and aggravates the performance. Thus, hostile and unfriendly environment become an integral factor.
Mackinnon and Dworkin argue that the deformation of sexual desire, prior to, and causes, other forms of objectification of the sexual partner; an antecedent deformation of attitudes to things and persons infiltrates and positions desire (289). They further contend that the instrumental treatment of human beings - the treatment of human beings as tools of the purposes of another - is always morally problematic (289). This suggests a connection in the male treatment of women as a common feature in sexual life; sexual objectification comes in other forms such as denial of autonomy, denial of subjectivity and various forms of boundary violation (290). On the other hand, Nussbaum argues with regards to, context is everything and
The subject of these advertisements usually prompt controversy by the use of profanity, racist, nudity and sexual appeals. The subject of this advertising type instigates controversy mainly by the use of nudity and sex in advertising. These advertisements are usually considered to be unethical and cause audiences to raise an eyebrow. Use of sexual images in a manner to objectify women is condemned by many because of how much influence visual media has on people. Many complaints have been registered across the world against shock advertisements.
Expectations of roles within a culture may also support a sexist bigot; where generally males are expected to be masculine and females more feminine resulting in male possessing greater power and females being considered as the weaker sex. (Emerson Dobash, Russel P.Dobash ,1992) The distribution of power and role allocations allows men to be sexist and bigoted at the same time and impose these behavioral changes on women in the form of sexual and domestic
Sexual harassment is an unwelcome sexual advance, unwelcome request for sexual favors or other unwanted conduct of a sexual nature having the effect of verbal, non- verbal, visual, psychological or physical harassment. Sexual harassment will makes a person feel offended, humiliated and intimidated, where a reasonable person would anticipate that reaction in the circumstances. Sexual harassment in the workplace is a phenomenon that affects working conditions of employees, a serious problem that is becoming more and more common in our society and which leads to a series of serious and negative consequences or the victim and for organization. Sexual harassment will happen not only in the workplace, it might occur during outside the workplace as a result of employment responsibilities or employment relationships. Any misconduct during a work-related activity such work- related social functions, work- related travel, at work- related conferences or training sessions, even over the phone and through electronic media can constitute sexual harassment.
Exploitation is the use of someone or something in an unjust or cruel manner, or generally as a means to one 's end. Exploitation is taking an undue advantage of something or someone for one’s own self desires. It can be of physical and emotional both types. Emotional exploitation is a type of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behaviour that may result in psychological trauma including anxiety and chronic depression. Such type of exploitation is associated with power imbalance such as abusive relationship, bullying and abuse in the work place.
Stainback (2011) mention some predications which could cause sex discrimination in workplace and could be represented by spreading sense of competition and threat between employees such as minority group is visible to be targeted for abuse and hostility from majority group and majority do these hostilities against minorities to protect their interests and advantages. Having the same sex manger or director in the workplace make the same sex employees have some sort of power especially if the manger gives promotions and authority to the same sex, this creates atmosphere of sex discrimination in workplace. Moreover if the workplace is not support their employees on their qualifications and hard work, they would feel discriminated that would differ if the workplace is large company where the damage is minor or could be more pronounced in small workplace. Stainback also mentioned that if the employee have relative in the workplace who have more experience and power could make other employee subjected to sex discrimination especially if the relative is a woman with great power can be seen as a threat to male employee as some studies proved that women with great authority and education tend to do discrimination in the
Kupers coined the term toxic masculinity to describe those aspects of masculinity that are harmful to men, women and/or society, like domination, devaluation of women, homophobia or violence. Not all aspects of traditional Western masculinity are considered negative and toxic masculinity excludes neutral or positive attributes. However, this begs the question whether positive and negative traits can be separated and whether traits are unambiguously negative or positive or if some are more ambivalent, depending on the context or intensity of the trait. The concept of psychological flexibility, the ability to adapt to a situation on different levels, might in some cases be an important complement to understand if a trait is toxic or