Sexual Harassment Literature Review

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2. Literature Review
2.1. Harassment:
Harassment is considered as a form of discrimination on the grounds of gender and, thus, is opposing to the principle of equal treatment between men and women.
2.1.1. Definition of harassment:
Harassment is any improper and unwelcome conduct that might reasonably be expected or be perceived to cause offence or humiliation to another person. Harassment may take the form of words, gestures or actions which tend to annoy, alarm, abuse, demean, intimidate, belittle, humiliate or embarrass another or which create an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment (Salman et al, 2016: 89). Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, sexual harassment is classified as a form of sex discrimination. The
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For example when employees are offered a job promotion or a raise in the salary in return for a sexual favor or when they are threatened by a reciprocal action if they do not comply with the manager or supervisor advances. Another thing about Quid Pro Quo harassment is that it is considered as a form of on-the-job blackmail; however, defining the link between the unwelcome/improper sexual behavior and the employer’s action is mandatory for verifying that type of sexual harassment. (Laxman et al, 2014:…show more content…
Impact of harassment on employees and the Organization:
The consequences of harassment can be very significant on both the employees who have experienced it and the organizations itself. For the employees, results of such an act can lead to less job satisfaction and less organizational commitment, and increased levels of stress. They may also experience tension, anger, and anxiety. Some of them might as well experience depression or guilt or even the need for medical or psychological attention and more intention to quit their job.
For organizations, harassment can affect their reputation and success as it threats its employees’ personal security leading to less satisfaction not only with their job, but with the organization as a whole. And the lower the employees’ satisfaction is, the higher the turnover and absenteeism rates are. This may also lead to less productivity and innovation. Organizations may also be exposed to lawsuits and fines as well as other compensations and penalties. Sexual harassment is not only against the law but it also decreases the efforts for productive work and a good learning environment, thus lowering the chances of organizations progress (Laxman et al, 2014:

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