In contrary to previous forms of feminism, where motherhood or nurturing is seen as a fundamental part of femininity, femininity in postfeminism is defined as a bodily property. The female body is represented as a woman’s main source of identity and power. Furthermore in order to conform to female beauty standards continuous supervision, remodelling and monitoring of the body is required. In postfeminist media culture the body can often be viewed as a representative of the woman’s inner life.
In both The Female Bell-Cricket and This Powder Box, Nakamoto Takako and Uno Chiyo explore the notion of female sexuality as power. By asserting their sexuality, the female protagonists in both texts deliberately defy socially-prescribed female virtues of chastity and obedience. This ownership of their sexuality grants them power in their romantic relationships with men and liberates them from the submissive position that women are traditionally expected to be in. It is crucial to note, however, that the depicted ‘strength’ of the two female protagonists is ultimately a constructed façade; they are still tied down by society’s prescriptive ideals of femininity, and have their behavior propelled or influenced by their relationships with men.
Mackinnon also uses the language of reference objects, writing that porn purports to tell “the truth about sex” (3, 1985). That “truth” is the sexiness of violence and hierarchy. Pornography is a visual reference that tells the viewer what woman is, as if a pictorial dictionary. The image of the woman presented in porn represents “true” woman and is internalized as woman by the man (4, 1985). Mackinnon also gives concrete examples of porn acting as a reference.
Reviewed By: Aleesha Sooraj. ' What is patriarchy?' caters to the activists in the field of women's development. The book provides an insight into the issue of patriarchy and opens up our eyes into various happenings around us and identifies them, as a result of patriarchy which otherwise we would have taken as a granted. The author of the book, Kamala Bhasin, is an Indian developmental feminist activist, who is actively engaged with issues related to development, education, gender, media and several others.
Both texts ‘The Handmaids Tale’ and ‘The Bloody Chamber’ were written during the second wave of feminism which centralised the issue of ownership over women’s sexuality and reproductive rights and as a result, the oral contraceptive was created. As powerfully stated by Ariel Levy, ‘If we are really going to be sexually liberated, we need to make room for a range of options as wide as the variety of human desire.’ Margaret Atwood and Angela Carter both celebrate female sexuality as empowering to challenge the constraints of social pressure on attitudes of women. Both writers aim to expose the impact of patriarchy as it represses female sexual desire and aim to control it thus challenge contemporary perspectives of women by revealing the oppression
Anne McClintock wrote her essay “Gonad the Barbarian and the Venus Flytrap: Portraying the female and male orgasm” to examine pornography and how it has changed throughout history and its effects on how women perform as sexual beings. McClintock focuses on the various roles of pornography such as its emphasis on voyeurism, pleasure, and the male ego. She wants her readers to know that women are still not represented in pornography to satisfy their own desires, but they are there to cater to men and their subconscious. I will analyze how McClintock argues that due to the history of sexism towards women, the roles that men and women have in pornography are inherently different because of the societal belief that women are only seen as objects of sexual desire and are solely there to satisfy the male audience.
She not only wants her definition to include all couples, but she also wants to show how sex changes people and the relationship they are in. It isn't something to be taken lightly, and always alters the relationship no matter what, either bringing people closer together, or pushing them apart. Lastly the final part she wants to
The first strand that will be discussed will be that of Liberal feminism which focuses on the issues of gender equality. This theory has influenced the breeding of social activists whose main concern has been conceived as to protect and mend the political and social freedom of life. This has transcended to waging legal and political clashes against gender based violence on a domestic level among others. Feminist political philosophers have enlightened the distinct separation of domestic and public and their influence on maintaining patriarchal domination of women. The domestic setup such as the family has provided for this type of notion, given the roles of bearing children and being caregivers in the household (McAfee, 2014).
According to Catherine Mackinnon a noted legal scholar and feminist, sexual harassment is "the unwanted imposition of sexual requirement in the context of a relationship of unequal power" (MacKinnon, 1979). Sexual harassment generally falls under two categories: quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment. In addition, the majority of victims reporting occurrences of case involving sexual harassment are women, and the lion 's share of reported aggressors are men. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission give legal response to casualties of such inappropriate behavior. A few sociologists relate the full coordination of women into the cutting edge workforce with an increment in cases of sexual harassment.
This passage becomes one of the main statements defining the term womanism discussed previously in the thesis. Walker supports and develops this term with the representation of the relation between Celie and Shug. Celie’s growth as a woman is visible in her relation with Shug Avery who teaches her how to enjoy life and to accept herself wholly. Some researchers support this argument by stating “Walker always emphasizes the importance of sisterhood in black women`s emancipation” (Singh & Guphta, 2010: 218). Shug introduces Celie to same-sex relationships and masturbation.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal. It defines, establishes, and achieves equal political, economic, personal, and social rights for women. “This was also the perspective conveyed by the best know histories of the American women’s movement published prior to 1970, in which feminism effectively began in 1848 at Seneca Falls and the focus was on votes for women” (Offen 6). In Margaret Atwood’s novel The Handmaid’s Tale shows how women advocated feminism in order to increase a political ideal. However, people say that it is impossible to read the novel without being aware of the issues of gender and the aspects of feminism, that are central to it.
A disturbing phenomenon has begun in today’s culture. Media expects women to look like girls and girls to look like women. This is caused by the media’s constant sexual objectification of women and young girls. They are portrayed as objects of desire with no discernable personality for men. The article, "Understanding Sexual Objectification: A Comprehensive Approach Toward Media Exposure and Girls ' Internalization of Beauty Ideals, Self-Objectification, And Body Surveillance," provides a diagram of the cycle of objectifying media and the reaction by female consumers.