Rind, Bauserman, and Tromovitch’s (1998) meta-analysis of childhood sexual abuse was controversial and challenging to read. The article challenged many of my preconceived notions about how trauma is manifested in children who have been sexually assaulted. There is a very wide range of incidents that could fall under the umbrella that is considered childhood sexual assault. This wide range could potentially cause a large margin of error in findings of research on effects of childhood sexual assault. However, I would disagree with Rind et al. (1998) when they say that abuse to a child is not always harmful. A child could internalize their emotional responses to abuse or could be provided with adequate mental health treatment, which could ease
Mistreatment of children is not a new phenomenon. Indeed, during the recent years, harassment against child has shown an increase in the public’s eye. There are many factors related to child maltreatment. It has four general categories of child abuse now recognized: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment. Each category, in turn, covers a range of behavior.
There are many different ways for a trauma to affect a person’s life. One of the most prominent means is through childhood experience. Adolescent and teenage years are both essential stages of development; when trauma disrupts this process, the mind and body can be effected more so than that of an adult who has never experienced trauma before. Greenwald’s “Childhood Handbook” provides multiple scenarios regarding the affects a trauma can bestow on a child. The novel “Trauma and Recovery,” by Judith Herman, goes into detail regarding the topic of captivity and how it can intensify the trauma one has endured for a period of time. We can demonstrate the idea of captivity, specifically the captivity of children, through a major current event that has been an issue for years—children of war.
Thurston (2006) explains that there are several causes of child abuse, but according to all the theories, there are three main causes of child abuse (Thurston, 2006, para.2). The first main cause is psychological,” the psychological theories argue that an individual who abuses has an innate characteristic that places them at greater risk of abusing, their motivation being linked to biological or instinctive features of human behavior. Child abuse may also be seen to be the result of a career’s deprived learning experiences, which may lead to inadequate controlling techniques when trying to manage children’s behavior. ”(Thurston, 2006, psychological cause, para.3). The second cause is social psychological, and this theory is mainly based on
When sexual abuse occurs children often act or behave in ways that are counterintuitive to what society believes they should behave. In 1983, Dr. Roland Summit developed the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome model to help others understand the many ways in which children react to sexual abuse. The model is broken down into 5 stages, the first two Secrecy and Helplessness are the preconditions to the occurrence of sexual abuse and the remaining three Entrapment and Accommodation, Delayed, Conflicted, and Unconvincing Disclosure, and the finally Retraction, are sequential contingencies which take on increasing variability and complexity (Summit, 1983). Children are more than often sexually abused by someone they know and trust.
The rights of children are being undermined by American civic laws. Children see a comfortable amount of protection from the government, but several issues exist as a result of America still not ratifying The Convention on the Rights of the Child, meaning children are not being protected from abuse, malnutrition, and are not receiving basic health needs. one in four children in America go hungry every day because of lack of food. This percentage of children are primarily of different ethnicity. A child must never go hungry no matter what ethnicity they are, America must protect their younger citizens (0-18 years of age) from going hungry. Abuse is something several children fear everyday with three million cases being reported, 10% being sexual abuse,and about 1000
According to many public agencies across the United States, over one million children were found to be victims of abuse in 1994, and three million reports of possible abuse of neglect. Every child’s experience of maltreatment is different and unique. It all depends on the child’s characteristics, their relationship with the perpetrator, and the intensity of the maltreatment done to the child. Workers in child protective services (CPS) agencies need a better understanding of the dynamics of maltreatment to help them decide what’s best for the child. This will guide them and help them offer appropriate programs that are beneficial and helpful to the child.
It is found that from the years 2009 to 2013, a documented 63,000 children were reported as victims of sexual abuse or harassment. Statistically, it is also found that every eight minutes, Child Protective Services find evidence or claims of child sex abuse. The effects of this abuse can be long-lasting and consequently affects the mental health of a victim. It is found that victims who encounter sexual harassment are four times as likely to develop drug abusiveness, post traumatic stress disorders, and three times as likely to develop anxiety or depressive episodes (Children and Teens: Statistics). The consequences of sexual abuse are not only found to be confined to the times of incidents but develop lasting effects on the victims long after the incident occurs.
They can’t care for themselves completely because of their age and are easily pressured into silence, especially if the violence is perpetuated by a family member. In The Sum of My Parts, Olga Trujillo recounts her time spent with Dona Graciela and how her father quickly put that to an end when Dona questioned about the violence in Olga’s family. Olga remembers her father saying “Dona Graciela didn’t want me anymore, so I should stop listening for her” (19). Children in sexually violent houses are made to feel like they won’t be loved by anyone else and because of their young age they are easily manipulated to believe they aren’t. Olga also describes the prostitution that her parents put her thought.
Maltreatment has a severe impact on a child’s current and future functioning and development regarding their emotional, social, cognitive, behavioral, and physical wellbeing.(Frederico 345). Different types of abuse, such as physical, emotional, and sexual have different consequences, but the consequences of all maltreatment, are likely to happen in three stages. Firstly, a child may have an initial reaction such as post-traumatic symptoms, painful emotions, and cognitive distortions. Secondly, children develop coping strategies that are aimed to help increase their safety or reduce their pain. Thirdly, a child 's sense of self-worth is damaged and develop the feeling of shame and hopelessness..
Most children are unable to fully understand the decisions made for them. This population tend to have limitations as far as learning disabilities or the mental capacity to see the world for what it is. What I mean by that, is children are naive and often adults easily manipulate them. They deprive children of their rights and self-respect/esteem and some children would never know that inappropriate practices are happening to them.
“Child sexual abuse has been correlated with higher levels of depression, guilt, shame, self-blame, eating disorders, somatic concerns, anxiety, dissociative patterns, repression, and denial. It has been shown that survivors often take personal responsibility for the abuse.” (Browne & Finklehor, 1986 p. 66-77). Often times, children are abused by someone close to them; either someone they know, or someone they trust. Thus, when the abuse is done by a trusted adult, it may be hard for the child to view the perpetrator in a negative light, causing the victim to obtain self-blame and self-hatred.
Of the 22.3 million children between the age of 12 and 17 in this country, at some time in their life about 1.8 million have been the victim of a serious sexual assault, 3.9 million have been the victim of a serious physical assault, and almost 9 million have witnessed serious violence (Helen, Connelly,
Dating violence against women has been a complex issue within the criminal justice system for the at least the last fifteen years (Bialo-Padin & Peterson, 2012; O’Dell, 2007). Even though there has been progress in establishing equality for women in regards to treatment, sadly dating violence against women continues to affect roughly 17.7 percent to 35.5 percent of women starting in thier teenage years (Largio, 2007). There are a number of issues that impede justice for women such as mandatory arrest laws which may include the arrest of the victim (Buzawa, Faggiani, Hirschel & Pattavina, 2007). In addition, women face a criminal justice system that is patriarchal (O 'Dell, 2007).