Essay On Shadow Education

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Patterns of Shadow Education
Remedial and additional help are the major concerns of the shadow education (Dang and Rogers, 2008). Remedial tuition includes the learning outside the school hours usually in the evening and helpful for the weak students whereas, additional help includes extra learning for the good marks and achievements (Kibere, 2005). In this context, shadow education is served by number of patterns across the globe. The major patterns of shadow education are: a) individual tuition, b) small group tuition and c) large group tuition (Hamid, 2009). Individual tuition includes one teacher provide tutoring to one student at teacher’s home or at children’s home. Small group tuition includes one teacher provide tuition to group of
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Micro factors include family factors and individual factors.
Family factors
The demand for shadow education among students from various socio-economic classes is usually measured by occupation of the head of the family, education of parents and family income. Various studies, from different parts of the world, showed that demand for shadow education is low in lower socio-economic families and higher in higher socio-economic families. Imparting shadow education to children is strongly correlated with income of the family and living location of the students (Bray and Kwok, 2003; Kim and Lee, 2001; Silova, 2006 and Paviot, 2008).

Macro factors includes the competition in marks and exams, weakness, examination, syllabus, size of the class, salary of the teacher and corruption are the major reasons behind opting private tuition.
Chuadhry W (2012) concluded that the motivating factors for shadow education includes better learning, quality teachers, competition, personality building, high grades and social status. Poor performance of government institutes acted as push factor. performance in examination and tests are the major reasons behind getting shadow education in many countries (e.g., Davies, 2004; Ireson & Rushforth, 2011; Smyth,

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