Civilization is the cooperation between individuals within a region. The first civilizations were Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. Both civilizations acquired a different environment. However, their environment promoted religion, specifically polytheism. Although their environments were different, both civilizations were in harmony about the existence of many gods.
Religion, democracy, and mercantilism were the main factors that fueled the development of colonial America into the country we have today religion checked people with bad intentions and encouraged those with good purposes, democracy created a government run by the people for the people and mercantilism fueled the entire country. Religion in the 16th to 18th century held massive sway over the actions of people with the punishments and rewards found throughout most religions. Punishments mostly meant being eternally damned so most people attempted to act good through their entire lives. Rewards were
Ancient Mesopotamia was established in the fertile crescent between the less reliable Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. During the bronze age both Ancient Mesopotamians and Ancient Egyptians developed forms of religion that highly reflected their habitat. They had many similarities in their politics even though they had completely different forms of government. Both societies were also known for their discoveries in art and technology. They developed their own forms of writing, different tools and architecture.
More importantly, “the elites’ legitimacy derived from their ability - through divination - to define, explain and control reality, a reality that, in a Bronze Age theocracy, was primarily conceived in a religious and familial terms” (De Bary and Bloom, 16). Once considered a superior in their society, one was able to conduct sacrifices and other religious practices. The king was one of the leaders of religion and seen as a person who was in between the gods and humans. He had servants who lived with him alongside his extended family. The aristocrats and the king were the only people able to have extended family living with them because they had the money to support all of them, while the rest
The ziggurat was an urban hub of administration, civics, politics, and public life topped by a religious center; the temple. The Priest Kings, who had divine right of rule through their deities, could commune with the gods in this temple. These Priest Kings were a symbolic bridge between the people and their gods. In contrast, the Egyptian Pharaohs were considered to actually be gods. They were divine beings who inhabited a human form for a period of time before continuing into the afterlife.
Walton points at various similarities between Israelite kingship versus Mesopotamian and Egyptian cultures. Both view their king as the mediator of their god’s will. Additionally, the kingship had the responsibility of justice throughout the kingdom. Some of the clear and critical differences, between the Israelites and their
Ancient Egypt is memorialized for its opulent history and culture along with the unique and defining burial practices. Ancient Egyptian religion was a complicated scheme of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of the ancient Egyptian society (El Mahdy, Christine). The religion centered on the Egyptians' interaction with a slew of deities who were considered to be present in, and in control of, the forces and elements of nature. The legends of these gods were to explain the influences of the forces they represented. The practices of Egyptian religion were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor.
One of the most interesting aspects of ancient Egyptian society is its religion. The depth of Egyptian thinking and the rich imagination displayed in the creation of ideas and images of the gods and goddesses are beyond the way to compare. In elaborating their beliefs, the Egyptians were working on the cosmic plane. They want to search to understand the most basic laws of the universe. Their morals and society conformed as a result of religion.
The concept of religion has been present in cultures throughout history. While obedience to gods is still commonly practiced in society today, the ancient Greeks were arguably one of the most religious civilizations. Many aspects of their lives revolved around the laws of their multiple gods, including city ordinances created by their kings. In the play, Antigone, created by Sophocles, a main theme of man’s laws versus God’s laws is demonstrated. In particular, the laws passed by Creon, the king of Thebes, demonstrate how the laws of man can contradict the laws of the gods.
How can one religion have all the answer for all the different people in the world? In many prevalent religions the “universal truth” is used to provide justification for domination and superiority. The truth proved that the system of belief “had all the answers”. This provided the need to convert others to their religion to ensure the safety of their soul, but it soon became to be used as a tool in the authority over other cultures. Not all cultures believe in a universal truth, Buddhism actually identifies that it does not have the universal truth.