According to Bureau of Planning and Economic Development (BOPED) report trends in cattle population in the region slightly increasing starting from 1997 while it was relatively constant for sheep and goats (BOPED, 2002). Livestock have various social and economic functions in both highlands and lowlands/pastoral farming systems. In the highland and mid altitude areas of the region, livestock are part of the mixed farming complex providing integrated inputs for crop production (i.e. traction, threshing, transport and manure) and outputs such as milk, meat, eggs, wool, hides and skins. In the lowland parts of the region, livestock are generally the sole sources of livelihood providing milk; meat and transport at large, while hides and skins provide additional income (Million T, 2003).
LIVESTOCK FARMING IN NIGERIA Livestock farming is defined simply as the process of breeding animals for the sole purpose of consumption. Animal husbandry which is another name for livestock farming, is a rapidly growing arm of farming in Nigeria, and the primary reason why more entrepreneurial farmers are venturing into livestock farming is its profitability. Why livestock farming? As long as humans exist, there will always be need for food and the two major sources of food for mankind are crops and animals. Livestock farming is a very important aspect of agriculture in Nigeria, as the Nigerian community depends mostly on meat, especially from cows and chicken.
Due to a limit of crop species, traditional farmers still continue growing crops for urban people. Moreover, vertical farming focuses on a high value and rapid-growing, so those slow-growing crops are not profitable in a commercial vertical farming system (Birky, 2016). The benefits of vertical farm toward humanity are various than its drawbacks. As the production through the controlled systems is not susceptible to variation of any factors such as climate, insects and disease, the innovation can increase crop yields in year-round production with high quality and quantity without using herbicides or pesticides. Additionally, vertical farming can take advantage of low-value land or unavailable for food production.
Livestock production in Ethiopia contributes up to 80% of the farmers ' income. the number of livestock population in Ethiopia are approximately 50.8 million head of cattle, 25.9 million sheep, 21.9 million goats, 0.8 million camels, 39.6 million chickens, 1.8 million horses, 0.4 million mules, 5.6 million donkeys and an estimated 10 million bee colonies, out of which about 7.5 million are confined in hives and the remaining exist in the forest and crevices(Kasa et al., 2015). Among livestock species, sheep and goats are highly adaptable to a broad range of environments and are closely linked to the social and cultural life of resource poor farmers, serve as a living bank for many farmers (Albenzio et al., 2016). Small ruminants are the major economically important livestock in
Due to industrial farming there have been many changes in economic scale, people get low price food, and people can save their money on food purchase. In Industrial farming the product are produced at low cost. Industrial farming helps in efficient production and distribution of huge quantities of food to feed large cities. Some Industrial farming also provides new job facility to local community. Some of the top Indian leading companies who practices industrialized poultry farming are Venkateshwara group, Pune.
INTRODUCTION The increase in population causing higher demand in agricultural commodities for both crop and animal. The increase in population is also associated with the environmental problem currently occurred (Aneja et al., 2006). Due to higher demand in both crop and animal product, farmers throughout the world have sought the problem by increasing productivity. However, due to the fact that the demand need to reach satisfactory, another main problem in animal agricultural industry is unmanaged waste. Waste from animal agricultural industry mainly the manure are very hard to utilised because the amount of manure is too much to handle since the amount of animal itself is quite high.
The livestock industry depends on the rangeland for forage. With past mismanagement of rangeland overgrazing, and soil erosion have put enormous pressure on us to make rangeland conservation a priority. The primary objective for rangeland management is the long-term maximization of livestock productivity from managed rangeland. Grazing capacity needs to be considered for the planned management of the
Ethiopia is a home for approximately 24 million goats (CSA 2013). Though the population density of goats in mid- and low-altitude areas is high, they are produced across the country from the arid lowlands to the coolest highland areas. Goats are amongst the commonest farm animal species, which sustain the livelihoods of smallholder farmers, pastoralists and agro pastoralists alike. They fulfil various functions such as generating cash income, serving as household security, accumulating capital, and fulfilling cultural obligations (Workneh and Peacock 1993; Workneh 2000; Dehaba et al. 2012).
* Knowledge creation among small farming community regarding new practices, markets, capital, effective resource use (land and labor) *Access to irrigation and use of water control measures. *Intensification of land by practicing Intensive farming. * Shifting from food crops to high value cash crops and allied commodities like milk, eggs, fish, or meat produced for market. * Diversification
The foreign exchange could be made from the exportation of agricultural surplus would create room for income to the government. The mere conclusion of all this is that more developed a country the smaller is the contribution of agriculture in national output. Source of Livelihood: In advanced countries, this ratio is very small being 5 per cent in U.K., 4 per cent in USA., 16 per cent in Australia, 14 per cent in France, 21 per cent in Japan. This high proportion in agriculture is due to the fact that the non-agricultural activities have not been developed to absorb the rapidly growing population. Employment Opportunities/ reduction in unemployment: The agricultural sector is