Summary Endoplasmic reticulum is a eukaryotic organelle that forms interconnected network of cisternae, vesicles and tubules within the cells[1,2]. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes in its membrane, these ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. The ribosome free endoplasmic reticulum also know as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, its functions including lipid synthesis, drug detoxification and regulation of calcium concentration[2,3,4]. Furthermore, the endoplasmic reticulum can be isolated from animal soft by centrifugation method and the production form isolation can be used to study the metabolism of lipid and the recovery
This step takes place in liver and kidney of mammals. The enzyme cleaves arginosuccinate to form arginine and fumarate. The arginine formed by this reaction serve as the immediate forerunner of urea. Fumarate created in the urea cycle is hydrated to malate, providing a link with several metabolic pathways. For example, the malate can be transported into the mitochondria via the malate shuttle and re-enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Organelles allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas of the cell. Before turning to organelles, let’s first examine two important components of the cell: the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. The Plasma Membrane Like prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane, a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that separates the internal contents of the cell from its surrounding environment. A phospholipid is a lipid molecule with two fatty acid chains and a phosphate-containing group. The plasma
Introduction The transport of B12 from its food source to reach the body cells is mediated by a complex set of carrier proteins, receptors and transporters . The selective multistep pathway of B12 transport, include the liberation of B12 from its matrix in the ingested food, gastrointestinal transport,
Enzymes perform the critical task of lowering a reaction's activation energy, which is the amount of energy that must be put in for the reaction to start. Enzymes work by binding to reactant molecules and holding them in such a way that the chemical bond-breaking and bond-forming processes take place more readily. Long chains of amino acids are folded to produce a special shape which is called a tertiary structure, a tertiary structure enables other molecules to interact with the enzymes. The ability of the enzyme to act as a catalyst depends on their shape. On the surface of an enzyme there
In the human body, one of the essential systems is the digestive system, which breaks down the foods what we eat into nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and fats. The bloodstream would be absorbed by them. Therefore, it provides the body with energy, repair and growth. Also, the three types of processes that food passes through in the human body are digestion, absorption and elimination. The digestive system prepares the body cells for nutrients through six activities: Ingestion, Mechanical digestion, Propulsion, Chemical digestion, Absorption and Defecation.
SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
ER is divided into two types: rough ER, having ribosomes attached to its outersurface, and smooth ER, lacking ribosomes. The two types of ER have different functions in the cell, with rough ER to be mainly involved in protein modification and smooth ER being more of a jack-of-all-trades (many functions). Both types of ER can manufacture new lipids for export to other cellular membranes. (Johnson et al, 2010) The Rough ER is a site of protein
Isolation: Proteins are large molecules with diverse biological functions. They could be catalysts, receptors, chemical messengers etc. in order to study proteins, they need to be isolated in pure form. The three-dimensional structure of most proteins is a consequence of many relatively weak non-covalent interactions. Disrupting cellular structure is required to release the proteins from the cell.
The first phase of digestion is the cephalic phase. Neurogenic signals from the cerebral cortex are transmitted through the vagus nerve to the stomach and stimulate gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs from smelling, seeing, thinking about and tasting food, prior to further digestion of food in the stomach. Break down of milk begins in the mouth where salivary glands secrete salivary amylase and lipase. Salivary amylase initiates the hydrolysis of long carbohydrate chains to disaccharides and polysaccharides.