Other secure uses include apparel hang tags, certificates (tag registration, diamond jewellery, etc.,) tickets (theatre shows, sporting event, etc.,), coupons (gift vouchers, payment receipts, etc.,) and many kinds of identification and membership cards. Holograms also grace currencies and passports in many countries. High security holograms are used on excise labels on liquor bottles in many states of India, as well as on bank demand drafts and a variety of government issued bonds and certificates. Security holograms are very difficult to forge because they are replicated from a master hologram which requires expensive, specialized and technologically advanced equipment
The term photogrammetry is old as term photography. It is derived from three different Greek words; photo means photographs, gram mean drawn and metry mean measurement. The purpose of photogrammetric measurement is to reconstruct three dimensional of an object either in digital (coordinates and derive geometric elements) or in graphical form
Graphic design is a skills and art of combining texts and pictures as advertisements, magazine or books, but there is actually little fun design to it to this. These are constructed to catch the viewers eyes and attention which does a great job.
Among them are double random phase encoding (DRPE) , digital holography , Fractional Fourier transform FrFT , , optical exclusive- OR , virtual (digital) optics , watermarking, and polarization . These techniques use a complete optical set up which include; source light, lenses, mirrors, splitters, spatial filters, gratings…etc. Conventional optical encryption techniques are based on the classical 4-f system architecture ,see figure 1.1, , A two-lens processor, that uses two fixed random phase-masks one in the input and the other in the Fourier plane, respectively. In this technique the original image will converted into a stationary white noise  and the encrypted data is complex and have to be stored holographically. To record high quality approximations of both the amplitude and phase of complex valued wavefronts output by the optical encryption systems, digital holographic techniques have been used.
Telescopes collect a larger amount of light compared to your eyes therefore resulting in a brighter image Telescopes can resolve more detail than your eye without the need of any assistance such as glasses Telescopes can magnify images so you can see in more detail The behaviour of light passing through different media There are two types of telescopes -refractors and reflectors. The
It is ideal as far as minimizing the joint uncertainty in space and frequency, and is often utilized as an orientation and scale tunable edge and line (bar) detector. There have been various approaches suggested to characterize textures of images based on Gabor filters. Gabor wavelet transform is a suitable multiresolution technique that represents the texture of an image in an effective way using multiple orientations and scales. This technique has a spatial property that is indistinguishable to mammalian perceptual vision, thereby giving researchers a better chance to utilize it in image processing. Gabor filters are develops to perform superior than wavelet transform and other multiresolution approaches in constituting to textures and retrieving images due to its multiple orientation approach
3. Modelling of the system The dynamic analysis of any physical system using bondgraph simulation method [14, 15] is an established tool. Bondgraph is a representation of power flow and, as such, it constitutes a very useful approach in formulating descriptive equations for a physical system. For a brief representation of a physical system consisting of morphologically similar sub-systems, multi-bondgrph is used. The displacement chambers of the multi-piston pump and the hydro-motor experience compression and expansion phases sequentially.
It is used mainly for huge data compression and pyramidal demonstration where images are separated into smaller areas. Wavelets are useful in the procedure of X-ray and magnetic-resonance images in medical purposes. (g) Morphological Processing Morphological processing is a set of non-linear function which is linked to the shape or morphology features of an image. It deals with the apparatus used for the extraction process of an image and the components that are useful in the demonstration and explanation of shape. (h) Segmentation Image segmentation is a method of dividing a digital image into several segments (group of pixels, also called as super pixels).
in fact, Hyperreality is the inability to distinguish the reality from a simulation of reality especially in technologically advanced societies (Zompetti.j.p&Moffit .m.a). On the other hand, the theory of Baudrillard step forward McLuhan’s medium theory: there is not only an implosion of the message in the medium, there is, in the same movement, the implosion of the medium itself in the real, the implosion of the medium and of the real in sort of hyperreal nebula, in which even the definition and distinct action of the medium can no longer be determined
For those who doesn’t know what a hologram is, it is a three-dimensional image formed by the interference of light beams from a laser or other light sources . It was very interesting and beautiful at the same time. At that moment I was like “in love” with the hologram and stayed there for about 10 minutes, looking at it and reading the information on the information panels! But then I had to move on. After the hologram, we went to a humongous brain model.