When the suit reached Judge Frank Johnson he dismissed the case saying the state had the rights to draw a boundary of what he could accept, but after he dismissed the case it had reached the Court of Appeals and the ruling was upheld. Booker T. Washington, the head of Tuskegee, helped to advance education and self-improvement for blacks, saying that whites needed to accept that black people were deserving of voting rights. Gomillion and his attorneys appealed to the U.S Supreme Court. The case was argued by Alabama Civil Rights attorney Fred Grey. This was a landmark case, The Supreme Court ruled this was against the 14th and 15th amendment.
In 1866, The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), which existed in almost every southern state, were established to resist the republican party 's policies establishing equality for the black people. The KKK 's primary goal was to reestablish white supremacy. They did this by democratic legislative victories. At first the Klan held rallies, marches, and parades, denouncing immigrants, Catholics, Jews, blacks, and organized labor. After the Civil rights Movement in 1960, their focus was more specifically towards black people and white activists, including bombing of black school and churches.
7. John E. Rankin If there were an award for the figure most often on the wrong side of history, John E. Rankin, a Congressman from Mississippi, would be the frontrunner for it. Rankin, who served from 1921 to 1953, was one of the most vicious bigots Congress has ever seen. A sympathizer of the Ku Klux Klan, Rankin was a leading disenfranchiser of blacks for decades. Rankin opposed allowing black soldiers fighting in the Second World War to vote; stated that Americans lost battles because of the cowardice of black soldiers; proposed prohibiting interracial marriage; and deliberately tried to exclude black veterans from the GI Bill.
"Jefferson") while being senator, Davis advocated slavery and state rights. In addition, He didn’t want California to become a free state. (A&E Television Networks. "Jefferson Davis Biography")Davis resigned from being a senator in 1851 because he was selected to be a democratic Candidate. (Mississippi Historical Society.
On top of that the north had two million men fighting against the the south 's with just 900,000. As quoted from www.markedbyteachers.com/as.../why-did-the-south-lose-the-american-civil-war.html “ Troop levels, army supply and the finance of the war all played a major role in which side was to win the war.”. The north started using black soldiers for the free northern states to fight in the war making their troops larger, because of this the north gained an even bigger advantage. With a 300$ exemption that contradicted the idea of individual liberty, but even though it was available you would have to able to pay for it. Very few people had that kind of money at the time so it was considered ‘Rich mans war and a poor mans fight’ as shown on www.markedbyteachers.com/as.../why-did-the-south-lose-the-american-civil-war.html.
Jackson won with flying colors and he was onto his second term. After he was re-elected, Jackson’s vice president disagreed with Jackson that South Carolina could have the power to secede from the Union. “President Jackson was a strong believer in the states’ rights to determine their own laws. He did not, however, believe that the states had the right to threaten the existence of the Union” (Osinski, 77) This led to the resignation of Vice President Calhoun. Being the first vice president to resign from office (biography.com).
The Supreme Court in 1956 found that it was unconstitutional to have segregated buses. Another example of ways Martin Luther King was an advocacy for a good society was The Birmingham campaign of 1963. This campaign was too end discriminatory economic policies in Alabama. Martin Luther Kings was successfully in doing this by boycotting certain businesses that hired only white people or that had segregated restrooms. He also held sit-ins and marches to ensure that equality was in Alabama.
It was possible for them to both believe that slavery should not be taking place. “The Lincoln-Douglas Debates were a defining event in American Politics”(Goldfield,389). Lincoln was a prominent lawyer in the years prior to being elected president and returned after his presidency. Lincoln represented blacks in courts where he fought for their rights to remain free, but also during the 1830s and 1840s represented slave owners. He occasionally expressed views that it was wrong to own humans, but as politician during that time, he knew he couldn’t run on a position that emphasized slavery(Black).
To Defend a Black Man Would you defend a black man in the 1930’s in the south? Atticus Finch’s decision to defend Tom Robinson is questionable as Atticus had endangered the lives of family and friends, but on the other had Atticus was best fit for the job and the only lawyer who had a chance to help Tom. Atticus from to To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee in 1960, was the father of Jem and Scout; the main protagonists. They had lived in an imaginary town called Maycomb set in Southern Alabama in 1930 in the years of the great depression when poverty was great in much of the country. Atticus had a court case for Tom Robinson, who had been filed for rape by Bob Ewell.
As Sean Willentz wrote, “the supposedly antislavery Jacksonians were actually proslavery men who feared that emancipation would cause untold thousands of undesirable blacks to emigrate to the North,” (Willentz 220). Similarly, the Gag Rule allowed members of Congress to avoid dealing with slavery by making the states decide rather than the national government (PP 33). Most white abolitionists originated in the North where the economy did not depend on slavery. Although the North abolished slavery, white supremacy remained prominent in society. Rare exceptions to this mentality included William Lloyd Garrison, who wrote the abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, expressing views similar to the black abolitionists (Berlin 208).
Southern leaders were outraged; the 44 teachers who supported the “nine” lost their jobs. Eisenhower explained that he did what he did not to favor integration, but to obey the federal law. (Roark, P. 924) What set civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s apart from earlier acts of black protest was its widespread presence in the South, with a large number of people involved, their willingness to confront the white institutions directly and the use of non-violent protests and civil disobedience to bring about change. The arrest of Rosa Parks in December 1955 is probably the most famous example of this. The African Americans boycotted the bus system in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, the Montgomery bus boycott lasted a full year.
The nation’s mindset revolved around white supremacy, so African Americans were never viewed as human beings, rather, they were viewed as property and white people despised them. White males did not have any respect towards African Americans because they were considered property, so they were put to work as slaves. Once slavery was abolished and president Andrew Johnson heard that congress was planning to grant formerly enslaved people to be viewed as citizens through the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, he immediately vetoed the bill. Johnson was a racist and former slave owner who said, “this is a country for white men, and by God, as long as I am president, it shall be a government for white men.” The president was the person that
The codes (1) prohibited blacks from either renting land or borrowing cash to shop for land. (2) Prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court. Johnsons also alienated and tried to stand against the Republicans in early 1866 when he vetoed a bill increasing the service and protection offered by the Freedmen’s Bureau and a civil rights bill that invalidated the Black codes. (Doc 2). This cause many problems with the “Radical Republicans”,who was looking for civil rights for African-Americans people in