Clostridium difficile, also referred to as C. diff, is a bacterium that is known to cause mild to severe diarrhea and can lead to severe inflammation of the colon (Government of Canada, 2014). C. diff contains spores that are found in fecal matter. Through encountering a surface containing contaminants such as feces, puts a person at risk for the later development of diseases such as c. diff. This bacterium can also be spread through contact from healthcare workers that have not followed correct cleansing routines such as but not limited to hand washing. High dosages or extended usage of antibiotics can also increase the chances of developing C. diff (Government of Canada, 2014).
Introduction Ischemic colitis is damage to the large intestine due to reduced blood flow (ischemia) to the colon. The colon is the last section of the large intestine, where stool is formed. The reduced blood flow may lead to the death of cells (necrosis) in the lining of the colon, damaging the colon and often causing bleeding. Most cases of ischemic colitis are temporary. In other cases, blood flow does not improve, and parts of the colon start to die.
Many patients with chronic sinusitis have allergies which may partially complicate sinusitis. Allergies cause swelling and blockage the tiny holes which allow drainage of mucus from the sinuses. In addition, the allergies may cause swelling inside the sinuses and inside the nose. It is critical that patients with allergies control their environment to control their sinusitis. Because so many patients with sinusitis have allergies, we have included a section on allergies later this website as well.
Because they also encourage mucous secretions, macrophage activity on pneumococci is decreased while bacterial adhesion to the epithelium is increased. Pneumonia is a condition that aggravates the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. Cyanosis occurs as a result of the decrease in gas exchange through the inflamed alveolar membrane and subsequent decline in hemoglobin saturation. One of the most common complications of the flu is a bacterial infection.
Physicians have generally advised individuals to drink a lot of water if sick. A new case study reports the dangers of consuming too much water and shows the need for more study to support this standard advice. For years, the major medical advice in case of flu or respiratory infections has been to consume a lot of fluids. Theoretically, this is regarded good advice; while in a cold, the body releases more liquids via the nose or may be running a fever, which could result in more fluid loss. In the case of infections in general, consuming more water is thought to assist with intravascular volume loss, enhanced vascular permeability, along with replace the fluids lost in fever and vomiting.
So there is no risk of a community out break, unless the bacteria is found in the communities water supply. Unlike Pontiac fever, Legionnaires disease is fatal if left untreated. The disease can be treated with antibiotics, because the bacteria multiplies in the cell, the antibiotics used are excellent intercellular penetrator. Most commonly used antibiotic are levofloxacin, azithromycin. In order to prevent the spread of Legionella bacteria the health department would need to preform regular water sample test.
In all areas of healthcare, particularly in acute care settings, patients may be unable to care for their nutritional and/or hygienic needs properly. One area that is especially important to address is the perineal care of patients who are incapacitated, or otherwise unable to care for their hygienic needs independently. Normal bacterial flora can develop into an opportunistic infection if the bacteria reaches certain areas of the body. For example, a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) is due to Escherichia coli from the colon coming into contact with the urethra (Copstead & Banasik, 2013). If the patient is immunocompromised, elderly, sedentary, or otherwise compromised in their abilities to void, this can predispose the patient
Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) is used to confirm or rule out brain or brain stem involvement.  Clinical symptoms; Symptoms include diarrhea, fever (high temperature), nausea, vomiting and flu-like symptoms. listeriosis is a serious disease in humans; the overt for of the disease has a case fatality rate around 20%. The two main clinical manifestations of the disease are sepsis and meningitis. In the case of meningitis, it is commonly complicated by encephalitis, when it is known as meningoencephalitis, a pathology that is unusual for bacterial infections.
The measles is an air born disease spread though cough and sneezing of those infected. Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, and red eyes. After the symptoms you may begin to notice the forming of small white spots within the mouth and a red flat rash on the face and spreading to the rest of the body will follow. Complications could occur such as blindness, inflammation of the brain, and pneumonia. There are no specific treatments available but supportive care such as drinking plenty of fluids, maintain a healthy diet, and medications to control the fever.
• A sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy to look at your colon. These procedures involve passing an instrument through your rectum to look at the inside of your colon. TREATMENT Treatment for this condition includes: • Taking antibiotics that keep C. diff from growing. • Stopping the antibiotics you were on before the C. diff infection began. Only do this as instructed by your health care provider.
A Macroscopic analysis is done by making visual determination of color and clarity. These tests are done to check for the presence of disease, the color and smell of urine can indicate the presence of infection. To check the treatment in particular diseases like diabetes, kidney stones, high blood pressure, and liver and kidney disease to see if treatment is effective. Other
Chills, fever, chest pain, tachypnea, and shortness of breath are all signs of pneumonia. A late sign would be the nail beds and lips may becoming cyanotic due to lack of oxygen. If left untreated, septic shock could occur from the infection. The bacteria would colonize and multiply causing more problems throughout the body. Respiratory failure could also occur.