Identity politics driven by migration, Diaspora and exile have in turn mapped literary imagination and produced literary writings of distinct characteristics. Rushdie in his Imaginary Homelands states: ‘Migrants must, of necessity, make a new imaginative relationship with the world, because of the loss of familiar habitats.’ This change of habitat often results in translational representation of Diaspora and displacement, both spatial and psychological. However, their diasporic condition, their sense of exile and alienation, their metaphoric existence and their efforts to seek replenishment by making symbolic returns to their origins bind all this writing into a unity. Rushdie comments that migration ‘offers us one of the richest metaphors of our age.’ He adds, ‘Migrants-borne-across humans-are metaphorical beings in their very essence; and migration, seen as a metaphor, is everywhere around us. We all cross frontiers; in that sense, we are all migrant peoples.’ In her novels, Bharati Mukherjee has dealt with such moving metaphors of culture- their displacement, dislocation, mutation and translation.
Identity is socioculturally constructed. Erving Goffman, a famous sociologist, argues that in fact, there is no true self, and our ideas of who we are as individuals are constructed by our surroundings. Bonny Norton, a professor who studies identity, argues that there is a difference between between “social identity” and “culture identity” and that, as much as society and culture has an influence on individuals, you yourself do as well. Whatever we may believe, when we think of our own identity nationality, ethnicity, occupation or societal role may be the first few that come to mind. All these categories are artificial.
Migration from the native country imparts an indelible scar in the psyche of the migrants. They not only migrate from their place of birth but also from their language, culture, tradition, food habits and the list is endless. Immigration gives them the trauma as they would take a voyage from the world of familiar to the unfamiliar. In addition to that the immigrants are compelled to understand and adapt to the culture of the new land, their life style, food habits, climatic factors and the political milieu. They immigrate hoping for a better world but it becomes a mirage in the newly settled land.
Alphonso has already impregnated Celie once. Celie gave birth to a girl, whom her father clothing and seemingly killed in the woods. Celie has another child, a boy, whom her father also takes. Celie’s mother becomes very ill and dies. Alphonso brings home a new wife but continues to taking advantage of
The book A Thousand Splendid Suns was to show the evil acts that happened in Afghanistan in the end of the 1950’s to almost present day. The books author, Khaled Hosseini mainly showed the unjust treatment of the women in Afghanistan. A Thousand Splendid Suns vividly describes how the afghan people were tortured. This book has high and low points with many plot twist that will keep most people off of their seats. The story starts off with Mariam, a girl whom is mentally tortured by her mother.. Mariam lives with her mother, Nana, for the first fifteen years of her life, but something tragic happens which forces her to get married to an abusive middle-aged man named Rasheed in a distant city.
They struggle to maintain their identities while trying to shake them off at the same time. As Terry Eagleton writes in “The Idea of Culture”(2000) that the very word ‘culture’ contains a tension between making and being made most Diaspora writers concentrate on generational differences in exploring how new and old Diasporas relate to their land of origin and the host culture. Often their major concerns in works are split and flowing nature of individual identities. The rootlessness, coupled with the indifferent attitude of host culture adds to sense of otherness and
After a night of love-making with Watanabe, Naoko leaves for a sanatorium. Watanabe visits her there twice, and gets acquainted with her roommate, Reiko. Months after the second visit, Naoko feels life unbearable and hangs herself in a forest. Instead of attending her funeral, Watanabe and Reiko sing the song “Norwegian Wood” to memorize
Oxford English Dictionary defined autobiography as “an account of a person's life written by that person”. What it did not mention is that writing an autobiography requires plenty of leisure time, good education, wealth and access to books. As the world changes by time, situation changes too. Autobiographical statement of many different classes, ethnic backgrounds which also includes the deprived are accessible in various written forms and even as works of art. In an article written by novelist and travel writer, Paul Theroux “The Trouble with Autobiographies” he stated that autobiographies are invariably misleading.
This incident raised the following moral question worldwide: “How did we let it get this far?” The refugee crises have made us wonder whether we have always had cultural phobias such as xenophobia and hate. Or is it perhaps that globalization and digitalization have caused problems in regard to cope with cultural heterogeneity. Hence, it has raised an even more important question: “In global communication, how do you cope with cultural heterogeneity?” Global communication is the flow of people, money, goods, and stories of people. It is the carrier of cultural expressions (Hamelink, 2015a). Matei (2006), states that cultural heterogeneity is the exchange between different cultures, where regional and local ethnic identities are embraced even when global connections across regional and national borders become stronger.
She was playing in the woods behind their house when she taken. Minutes earlier her mom had been slayed trying to protect her last joy in life. Her mom died knowing she was unable to protect the last thing she valued. Imane bent down to examine a resting butterfly colored purple and blue perched on a small leaf. A hard and abrupt hand placed on her small shoulders.