This is a type of drug that increases alertness and physical abilities by increasing the heart rate, breathing rate and brain capabilities . It has a direct effect on the central nervous system, through this it can increase both the psychological and the physiological performance of an individual. They are mainly used to fight fatigue to suppress appetite so as to enable the athlete to exercise at an
In the regulation of blood pressure baroreceptor is the receptors and the medulla oblongata is the control centre while cardiovascular system is the effectors in the regulation blood pressure. When heart rate increase in a human body, more blood will pump into the arteries and will result in increasing in the blood pressure. This event detects by baroreceptors in the arteries wall and receptors will send impulses to the control centre known as medulla oblongata. Medulla oblongata will interpret the message and send the message to the effectors in body cardiovascular system. Thus it will slow the pulse and decrease the blood
ADH, elaborated by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary, increases the permeability of the collecting ducts with reabsorption of water from the urine leading to antidiuresis. Factor that stimulate its secretion include • Osmoreceptors that detect increased osmolality of the plasma (above 280 mOsm1L) near the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei • Haemorrhage is a very potent stimulator • Decreased tension of the atrial walls, great veins and pulmonary vessels, as occurs in hypovolaemia, stimulates increased ADH • Renin-angiotensin mechanism: Angiotensin, released as a result of decreased renal blood volume or pressure, directly stimulates ADH secretion • Cutaneous and Visceral Pain: Visceral manipulation, pain and emotional stress also stimulate ADH secretion. • Drugs: Ether, nicotine, morphine and barbiturates can stimulate ADH secretion while alcohol inhibits
These glands are part of the body’s endocrine system, a system of glands that produce substances that are distributed by blood stream. Epinephrine is continuously produced by the adrenal glands in small amounts, but when the animal is threatened, in times of excitement, emotional stress or danger, the brain sends a message to the adrenal glands to increase the production of adrenaline (Sapolsky, 2000). The springbok will experience an increase in epinephrine which will in turn stimulate the heart to beat faster in order to deliver enough oxygen to the muscles. The blood pressure will be raised by increasing the force of contraction. Vasoconstriction (constrict of small blood vessels to the digestive tract).
He states that emotion plays a key role in memory formation. As we are experiencing something our emotions will trigger release of hormones, if we are under stress, the hormone that is going to be released is cortisol, often called the stress hormone. If we are happy, dopamine (happiness hormone) will be released etc. The hormones will then signal our brain that something important is happening and a memory will be made accordingly (311). Thus, depending on the intensiveness of emotion and the type of hormone that is released while we are experiencing something, different types of memories will be formed.
They combine together to form the various cardiac muscle fibers and the environment surrounding the blood flow inside the muscle. When the heart is pumping, it is doing work against the pressure, the friction between the various components like the muscle fibes, the blood cells, striking of the blood against the blood vessels, closure of valves etc leads to generation of heat and increase
The adrenals are known for making the hormone adrenaline but also, they make the corticosteroids which affect your metabolism and sexual function. The pancreas is part of the the digestive system and the endocrine system. It makes the hormones insulin and glucagon. These help ensure you have the right amount of sugar in your bloodstream and your cells. If you don 't make any insulin, which is the case for people with type one diabetes, your blood sugar levels can get dangerously high and if the body makes some insulin but not enough, that is type two diabetes.
They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite ways. Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is the detection of high blood glucose levels. Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose levels rises.
Examples include being late, argument, exercise (voluntary or involuntary), etc. This triggers hyperventilation state, which triggers increase in respiratory rate, therefore supplying body with higher oxygen content; stimulate sympathetic release previously mentioned which releases cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline chemicals into the bloodstream, increasing cardiac output and total peripheral resistance, therefore increasing heart rate and blood pressure; which pumps more oxygen at a faster rate throughout the body. Shortly after, parasympathetic release will kick in and acute stress responses dissipate. Due to being short-term stress, there is no time for extensive irreparable damage to be done, but their post-stress symptoms present: muscular problems (like pulled muscles, tendons and ligaments leading to headaches, back pain), and post emotional stress like irritability, anger, anxiety or depression. [McGonagle,
• In alcoholic cirrhosis, the portal vein becomes scarred and blocked, causing an increase in hydrostatic pressure. Which leads to an increase in hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries. Alcoholic cirrhosis also causes the liver to under produce albumin. This lowers osmotic pressure in the vasculature, enhancing filtration out of the
At intermediate doses, dopamine acts on β1 receptor by releasing noradrenaline from nerve terminal and cause inotropic effect and possibly little chronatropic effect. Increase force of cardiac contraction will increase oxygen consumption and able to reduce coronary vascular resistance. At high dose, dopamine stimulates α1 receptor and cause general
Angiotensin I will activate Angiotensin II to cause vasoconstriction and to stimulate kidneys to release aldosterone. Aldosterone will retain sodium and water resulting in increased blood volume, which will elevate the blood pressure. At the same time, hypothalamus stimulates posterior pituitary gland also to release anti-diuretic hormone, which will also retain water resulting in increased blood volume and elevated blood pressure (Craft et al, 2013, p. 3191). However, Mr. Jensen takes anti-hypertension medicine i.e. Captopril (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme [ACE] inhibitor) which will inhibit the RAAS function leading to decreased blood volume and blood pressure. Moreover, due to open fracture on Mr. Jensen’s right leg, there is a possibility of significant blood loss, which can lead to hypovolaemia.
The medulla oblongata is responsible for maintaining vital body functions, such as breathing and heart rate. Nicotine affects the function of the brainstem. Nicotine is seen as a mild stimulant and provides relaxation. This psychoactive drug effects the cardiovascular system. The release of adrenaline leads to an increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.
As with all drugs, the side effects of Adderall vary in severity and frequency depending on the individual and how they take it. When the drug is taken recreationally in high doses or in conjunction with other drugs, undesired side effects are more likely to occur. Some of the more common physical side effects include hypertension (high blood pressure), tachycardia (increased heart rate), and loss of appetite. Amphetamine also activates the area in the human brain stem that controls the respiratory center, this process consequently accelerates the rate and depth of respiratory movements (cite). The psychological effects of Adderall are partially dependent on the individual user’s personality and their state of mind, typical side effects in therapeutic doses are alertness, apprehension, concentration, decreased sense of fatigue, and increased sociability (cite).