This essay will discuss the role of ecological validity in psychological research, drawing on material from the DE100 textbook ‘Investigating Psychology’. It will begin by giving a description of what ecological validity is, and consider it in relation to different examples of research. The research used to discuss the role of ecological validity will be based around social learning and aggression, behaviourism, and memory. Firstly the study of Bandura et al. will be considered, his experiments on children copying violent behaviours using the Bobo doll experiment. Then the Skinner box will be discussed, finally leading to the studies of Loftus and Palmer on the link between language and memory. The role and importance of ecological validity in each body of research will be discussed and evaluated.
Smith and Kosslyn (2007) define memory as a set of representations and processes by which information is encoded, consolidated, and retrieved. (p. 538). Models have been developed to show processes such as short-term storage that allows for problem solving and for how memory is processed from sensory input to long-term storage. Although, there are many representations of these types of processes, only a few will be discussed in this paper. As credit is due to all the theories and tasks that have been completed to give evidence that these processes do exist; at the present day moment experts still are not sure exactly how our brain works. Experiments done to study the processes built evidence neurologically that parts of the memory systems do show activity in parts of the brain. Making many of these modalities and processes valid and reliable when considering the main sections of memory. Consider the two main sections of memory: short term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory and long-term memory both have been examined through machinery such as a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan to prove that these processes do show through brain activity thus increasing our understanding of memory. Let us begin by further discussing long-term memory then short-term memory before attempting the contrivance of working
A study conducted by Gallagher (1994) had participants being surveyed about their belief in the super natural and paranormal (p.412). The problem that researchers faced was that they did not allow the participants to fully think about what their experiences have been. Once participants are allowed to connect their experiences to their memories they will be able to make a connection onto what they truly believe. Reproductive memory is a concept that Gallagher did not take into account when he was asking the questions. Russel and Jones (1980) also conducted an experiment in which they focused mainly on the reconstructive memory and how participants were feeling when asked specific questions (p.85). This experiment should have tried to incorporate both reconstructive as well as reproductive memory. Simply analyzing the reconstructive aspect of memory is only going to give you emotional thoughts about what was being searched. Researchers Wilson and French (2006) also conducted a research based on the reconstruction part of the memory (p. 1496). Although they wanted to see if participants would simply choose a false memory, they should have chosen an accident that might not be connected to something else. Researching memory should take into account both reconstruction and reproduction memory, instead of ignoring one or the other. This will help my
Good friend, W. (2012, December 4). Amnesia in '50 First Dates ' Retrieved July 21, 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/psychologist-the-movies/201212/amnesia-in-50-first-dates
Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 2(4), i-109.
Human memory is becoming a worldwide investigation in the fields of psychology. Atkinson-Shiffrin model suggests long term and short term memory. The model believes that long term memory is caused by several rehearsals such maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal, and distinctiveness. Similarly levels of processing—depth of processing, which involves shallow processing and deep processing—involve processes that influence memory. However, unlike Atkinson-Shiffrin model, levels of processing do not distinguish memory into short term and long term. The theory believes that elaborative rehearsal, or deep processing, improves long term memory. Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed that deep level of processing led to longer lasting memory while
Developmental psychology is branch of science, studying the fluctuations happen during infancy, early childhood, adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan. The topic of the lecture taught by Dr. Jane Herbert was the ‘Infant Memory Development’ discussing the traditional view on the declarative memory of infants and focusing on how age-related changes in retention and in the flexibility of memory performance. With reference to such topic and research, this essay will evaluate the both scientific and social effects of studying the development of infant memory, including: developing advanced methodology and supporting current theories; …..
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao and Bless Me, Ultima are stories told to us years after the fact. In Yunior’s case, enough time has passed for his ex-girlfriend Lola to have borne a daughter by another man. And Lola’s daughter is old enough for Yunior to be able to observe how she has “her mother’s [strong] legs.”
Although on the surface, the element of memory in the study of psychology may seem basic and rudimentary, the depths of memory are essentially, untapped. To truly understand the depths of memory, one must understand the storage of memory, the recollection of memory, and the processes of sharing memories. In order to obtain a better understanding of the subject matter, the examination of the independent documentary, Stories We Tell, was applied. Memory is also conceptualized into types, stages, and processes. These principles were measured in the lucrative and thorough examination of a childhood memory. In order to ensure the reliability and validity of the memory, the use of self-recollection, the use of recording, and the use of sharing with
1. Flashbulb memories are very detailed and vivid reconstructive memories that are usually linked with emotion and last a lifetime. Originally, flashbulb memories were thought to be very accurate and uneasily forgotten. One of the first studies ever done on flashbulb memories was Brown and Kulik (1977). They wanted to investigate if flashbulb memories were as accurate as everyone hypothesized they were. They had 80 participants in their study. Each participant was asked to recall memories that were linked to a shocking event. The results were that participants were able to recall the memories vividly and with much detail. Memories that were linked with a high level of emotion such as the assassination of JFK or a death of a relative caused
Eyewitness testimony is something which describes a person’s observations about any event or incident. Remembering something and recalling it later is possible because of memory. So, the ability of an organism to record information about things or events with the facility of recalling them later at will or when asked is memory. Eyewitness testimony in children is a part of their reconstructive memory according to “Elizabeth Loftus”. Reconstructive memory is the act of remembering and it is also influenced by various other factors and cognitive processes as well. While remembering the things or taking them into account for further usage children think that whatever they are seeing or observing will
Unfortunately, most people are not immune to this effect. The misinformation effect occurs when people witness an event and are later exposed to new and misleading information about the event which causes their memory to become distorted. Misinformation can come from co-witnesses comparing notes, family members and peers, police investigating a crime, and lawyers in the courtroom. Studies have shown that it is harder for police officers and lawyers to share misleading information that pertains to important or noticeable factors from the case. It through other studies that we have been able to identify young children and elderly people to be more susceptible to the effects of misinformation. The misinformation effect belongs in the system variables category because it can be caused by law enforcement and lawyers who are information
Short term memory is associated with Anterograde Amnesia. There are medications that can help with this process in helping your
The new advances in science on how the human brain stores memories and retrieves memories change how eyewitness testimonies are handled. There are two types of trace memories. The first type is called a verbatim memory and that memory consists of exact memories or very close to the original memories. Gist memories are a less specific trace memory. The gist memory is a fuzzy representation of the memory that was stored before. Gist memories are vague and therefore can be changed and altered
A similar study was carried out to test the flashbulb memory theory. In this study, the participants were undergraduates from either UK elsewhere but UK. The participants were asked about the resignation of the British Prim Minister Margaret Thatcher 1990. Participants were interviewed and asked about the event after a few days of the event had passed. They were reinterviewed 11 months later. The results were that 86% of the UK participants had flashbulb memories of the event. However, there were fewer non-UK participants (29%) that still had flashbulb memories. Hence, it was claimed that the event met the criteria for flashbulb memories of British people. This study suggests that flashbulb memories exist and are not the same as normal memories.