Name: Hemolytic uremic syndrome Overview: The hemolytic uremic syndrome is a condition characterized by destruction of red blood cells and kidney failure and often follows an infection of the digestive system caused by Escherichia coli, but can also occur for other reasons. The hemolytic uremic syndrome is a disease that involves two processes and two body systems: o destruction of red blood cells o kidney failure
The liver is the organ affected during an Hepatitis B infection. The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and has several important functions. The function of the liver is to remove excess glucose, which is also known as blood sugar, from the blood stream and stores it as glycogen ( a form of starch ). When the blood sugar level is low, the liver converts glycogen back into glucose and releases it for use by the body. The liver also destroys old erythrocytes, which are red blood cells, removes poisons from the blood, and manufactures some blood proteins.
She is a diagnosed patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus for last 10 years and was taking oral metformin for the control. Her glycemic control was not satisfactory and she was told that her renal functions were slightly impaired since last year. Latest creatinine clearance done 3 months back was 60 mg/dl/min. Physical examination revealed a mild hypoxia and tachypnea with mild respiratory distress. Her vital signs were; temperature - 103.7 0F, pulse rate - 126/min, respiratory rate - 28/min, blood pressure - 139/82mmHg and SpO2 of 81% on room air.
Cystic Fibrosis is an inherited disorder involving fluid secretion by the exocrine glands in the epithelial lining of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and reproductive tracts (Porth, 2011, p.584). The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CRTF) gene helps in the regulation of chloride through the epithelial membrane of the cells. A mutation in the CRTF gene causes impaired transport of chloride which increases sodium absorption and water into the blood. Once water moves into the blood it lowers the amount of water of the mucociliary blanket of the respiratory epithelium. Thus, the mucociliary function to not work and secretions (or thick mucus) to build up and block up airways (Porth, 2011, p.585).
This disease lasts a lifetime and usually gets worse with time. According to thoracic.org, “Cystic fibrosis affects at least 30,000 people in the United States; between 900 and 1,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. One in 29 people of Caucasian ancestry is an unaffected carrier of the CF gene mutation.” Although Cystic fibrosis is more commonly found in white people, there is no scientific evidence or answer on why so many Caucasian people have this disease. According to Ms. Judy Monroe, “…tissue in the pancreas becomes scarred and damaged.
With systemic lupus, the situation can be very different, with the loss of hair much more dramatic and noticeable. Lupus hair loss can be caused by the disease itself, as the immune system destroys hair follicles, or by medicines such as prednisone (a synthetic drug similar to cortisone, used to relieve rheumatic and allergic conditions and to treat leukemia). (Your Immune
An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system attacks a usually harmless substance called an allergen that gains access to the body. The immune system calls upon a protective substance called immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to fight these invading allergic substances or allergens. Even though everyone has some IgE, an allergic person has an unusually large amount of IgE. This army of IgE antibodies attacks and engages the invading army of allergic substances of allergens.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which the body does not have a normal number of platelets in the blood. Blood is made up of three major cell types: red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body; white blood cells, which help fight infection; and, platelets, which stick together at the site of a cut or wound to form a clot to stop the bleeding. People who have thrombocytopenia don’t have enough platelets to form a blood clot, and so they may bleed excessively when they are cut. (nhlbi.nih.gov, 2013) Blood cells and platelets are made in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside the bones.
Swelling only occurs on the back of the hands and feet and moves into the finger and toes. This may be the first sign of sickle cell in infants. The spleen helps filter out abnormal red blood cells and helps fight infections. At times the spleen traps many cells that should be in the bloodstream and it grows large. This causes anemia.
Every day in this country, 9000 healthcare workers sustain a disabling injury while performing job-related tasks and many of these unfortunate health care workers are registered nurses. Sometime these injuries can be debilitating, career-ending and life altering. They can result to lost work time or sometimes permanent disability. The Bureau of Labor and Statistics in 2006 first started to survey non-fatal injuries in the workplace and revealed that one of the highest rates were among nursing staff. An estimated 12% of nurses leave nursing annually because of back injuries and more than half complain of chronic back pain.
The patient is a 63-year-old woman who presents for follow up after hospitalization at [Place], because of GI bleeding. The patient had presented here after years of living away, complaining of a history of progressive bloody diarrhea. Lab work was markably abnormal with significant anemia, with hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia. The patient underwent a full evaluation, and was found to have colitis. She was treated with IV steroids, and has noted marked improvement in her condition.
In St. Anne’s nursing home has two therapy gyms. The gym on the first floor is large and provides both, occupational and physical therapy. The gym on the second floor is smaller and is used more for patients who cannot tolerate much distraction. This room is usually used more for individual treatment sessions. The patient that I got to observe was seen on the first floor of the skilled nursing home.
Imagine a world, where people’s red blood cells couldn’t move through their blood tubes to supply oxygen. With sickle cell your blood cells aren't normally shaped, and they become hard. In addition, they should be more of a “donut” shape rather than a “crescent”. When the sickle cells approach the small blood tube, they begin clogging the flow, and breaking apart. In this situation, it causes pain, low blood count and lots of damage.